Transportation II


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In today’s class, we will be talking more about transportation. Enjoy the class!

Transportation II


Forms of transportation

There are four major forms of transportation namely: land, air, pipeline and water. Land transportation can be divided into road and rail transport while containerization can be adapted to suit the other methods of transportation.

Road Transportation:

The various means of transportation by road are buses, Lorries, trailers, tankers, bicycles, tricycles, other motor vehicle, camels, donkeys etc.  it is the most extensively used of all the means of transportation.

Advantages of road transportation
  1. It is very cheap-cost of transportation is low
  2. It is flexible – it has no fixed time schedule
  3. It offers door to door delivery of goods
  4. It is faster on a short journey
  5. Packaging procedures – i.e. loading and unloading is not complicated
  6. It does not require special routes like trains
  7. It is available in a variety of vehicles.
Disadvantages of road transport
  1. It is more prone to accidents compared to rail or air transport
  2. Slow for long journeys
  3. It does not operate on schedule
  4. It is not suitable for carrying fragile goods
  5. Welfare facilities such as toilet, canteen, television etc, are not usually provided
  6. It has a limited capacity for carrying heavy and bulky goods
Rail transportation:

This consists of passengers trains and a good train of various types.

Advantages of rail transportation
  1. Larger capacity for bulky goods/passenger
  2. A standard rate of charges
  3. It is less prone to accidents compared with road transport
  4. It operates on a schedule
  5. Welfare services e.g. bath, toilets, canteen are provided
Disadvantages of rail transportation
  1. High capacity and maintenance costs
  2. It is not flexible as it observes a rigid time table in its movement
  3. Slow for short distance journeys
  4. The routes are fixed making it unsuitable for door to door
Air transportation:

The various means of transportation by air includes planes, hovercrafts, helicopters, jets, rockets etc.

Advantages of air transportation
  1. It is the fastest means of transportation
  2. It is comfortable, luxurious and efficient
  3. it is suitable for long distances
  4. it is reliable as it moves on schedule
  5. It has a multi-purpose usage.
Disadvantages of air transportation
  1. The cost of airfare is very expensive
  2. High capital expenditure and operating system
  3. It is vulnerable to limited by weather condition
  4. It is unsuitable for heavy and bulky goods
  5. Accidents are usually fatal.


  1. State five reasons why road transport would be preferred to rail transport
  2. Explain five problems of using rail transport in Nigeria
Transportation by pipelines:

Pipelines are means of transporting gases and liquid through pipes laid underground or on the land surface.

Advantages of transportation by pipelines
  1. It occupies little space
  2. It has low running  cost/maintenance costs
  3. Can be constructed in any type of terrain e.g. land, swamp, air, or under the sea
  4. It makes a possible continuous flow of goods within obstructions
  5. It is relatively safe
Disadvantages of transportation by pipelines
  1. Non-flexibility –pipelines, once laid cannot change their course
  2. It is not suitable for all types of goods
  3. Heavy capital expenditure
  4. Prone to leakages, unauthorized tapping which may be undetected for a long time.

This refers to the packaging of goods into large rectangular containers of uniform size and weight.

Advantages of containerization
  1. it facilitates easy handling of goods
  2. it reduces the incidence of pilfering
  3. It protects the goods against the elements of weather
  4. it is adaptable for transportation in ships, lorries, trains or aeroplanes
Disadvantages of containerization

It reduces employment opportunities available for dockworkers as containers are usually loaded into the ship by cranes or special fork-lifts.

Water Transportation:

This is the form of conveying goods and people from one place to another through the rivers, lakes, seas or oceans by ships, boats, canoes, ferry etc.

Advantages of water transportation
  1. It is suitable for heavy and bulky goods
  2. It is very safe
  3. It is relatively cheaper
  4. It may be adapted to carry perishable goods e.g. refrigeration
  5. It operates on a schedule
  6. It is comfortable and has luxurious facilities
Disadvantages of water transportation
  1. High capital expenditure requirement
  2. It is very low
  3. It is limited by weather condition
  4. High maintenance costs
  5. It is not flexible – as it moves on schedule


  1. State five advantages of transportations by pipelines.
  2. List five disadvantages of water transportation.
General evaluation
  1. Explain five ways by which foreign trade is different from home trade
  2. Identify five advantages and four disadvantages of automatic vending
  3. Explain six functions of wholesalers to manufacturers
  4. List and explain six methods used in correcting an adverse balance of payments
  5. State six facilities a good seaport should have 


  1. What is transport by rail
  2. State three reasons why rail transport would be preferred to road  transport

Reading assignment

Comprehensive Commerce SSS page 100-114

Essential Commerce for SSS page 214-228


In our next class, we will be talking about Water Transportation. We hope you enjoyed the class.

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