Aromatic hydrocarbon, Benzene-structure, properties and uses, derivatives of Benzene e.g. methyl benzene. Alkanols – sources, general molecular formula, nomenclature, classification, types, preparation, properties and uses.  Test for alkanols.




Benzene, structure, properties and Uses

Derivative of Benzene

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

These are hydrocarbons that have the same structure as benzene.


Benzene: Benzene is a typical aromatic compound with molecular formula of C6H6.  It has the structure of:


  1. From coal tar: The destructive distillation of coal produced coal tar which contain      benzene
  2. From petroleum; The dehydrogenated of alkane using valladim(v)oxide (v2O5) as     catalyst at 500oC and 20 atmos give benzene

C6H14     V2O2               C6H6  +  4H2

The process is known as catalytic reforming.

  1. From polymerization of ethyne

3 ( H – C = C – H )           C6H6



  1. Describe three (3) ways of preparing benzene.
  2. Draw the structure of benzene.


Physical properties

  1. It has a pleasant odour.
  2. It has boiling point of 80oC.
  3. Benzene can dissolve in water.
  4. It burns with sooty flame.


Chemical Properties

Benzene can undergo both additional reaction and substitutional reaction.

  1. Additional Reaction.
  1. Hydrogenaton:  Benzene reduces to cyclo-hexane if hydrogen gas is passed through       finely divided nickel at 150oC.
  2. Halogenation:  In the presence of ultra-violet light, benzene reacts with halogen to  produce cyclic compound.

C6H6  + 3 Cl2       UV


  1. Substitution Reaction.
  2. Benzene undergoes substitution reaction due to the presence of its single bonds.
  3. Halogenation e.g. Cl2, Br2, I2






+  Br2

Benzene                                            Bromobenzene

  1. Nitration: This occurs in the mixture of HNO3 and H2SO4 together with benzene


HNO3             Nitrobenzene.

iii. Sulphonation: Benzene reacts with conc., H2SO4 to form benzene sulphonic acid.


  1. Alkylation: It involves reactions of benzene with halo-alkanes in the presence of AlCl3.



  1. It is used as a solvent to dissolve organic.
  2. It is used as fuel in petrol.
  3. It is used in the manufacture of aromatic compound e.g. benzoic acid.



  1. State two (2) uses of benzene
  2. Identify two (2) chemical properties of benzene with examples.

 Derivatives of Benzene




  1. Give another name to the following compounds

(a ) Phenol               (b) Toluene

  1. State  four (4) derivatives of benzene.



New School Chemistry By .O.Y. Ababio, pg 492-494.



  1. Benzene can be prepared from the following except

(a) Coal tar              (b) petroleum         (c) Alkanol   (d) Ethyne

  1. Benzene can undergo additional reaction due to presence of

(a) double bonds  (b) single bonds     ( c) hydrogen     ( d) carbon.

  1. Benzene undergoes the following reaction except.

(a) substitution        (b) addiction   (c) Hydrogenation   ( d) polymerization

  1. The technique used in separating a mixture of common salt and water is

(a) evaporation     (b) sublimation  (c) decantation (d) chromatography.



  1. a. State two (2) uses of Benzene
  2. identify two (2) physical properties of benzene.
  3. a. How would you prepare benzene?
  4. State two (2) chemical properties  of benzene.
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