Basic Computer Literacy

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In today’s Store Management’s class, we will be learning about Basic Computer Literacy

Basic Computer Literacy

Basic computer literacy is a means of helping everyone understand how a computer works. Like our phones, operating a computer system has become a necessity in society. And in order to appreciate and understand how a computer works, we must first understand the idea behind the creation of the computer by defining it and highlighting its components. 

basic computer literacy

What is a Computer?

Computer is a machine or device that performs processes, calculations and operations based on instructions provided by a software or hardware program. It has the ability to accept data (input), process it, and then produce outputs.

Let’s look at the components of a computer along with their purpose and functions. 

  • Input Unit

A computer will only respond when a command is given to the device. These commands can be given using the input unit or the input devices. 

input unit of a computer

For example: Using a keyboard we can type things on a Notepad and the computer processes the entered data and then displays the output of the same on the screen.

The data entered can be in the form of numbers, alphabet, images, etc. We enter the information using an input device, the processing units convert it into computer understandable languages and then the final output is received by a human-understandable language.

  • Output Unit

output unit

When we command a computer to perform a task, it reverts for the action performed and gives us a result. This result is called output. There are various output devices connected to the computer. The most basic of which is a monitor. Whatever we write using a keyboard or click using a mouse, is all displayed on the monitor.

Thus, the output unit gives us the final result once the entire processing is done within the mechanism of a device.

For example: when we visit an ATM, we enter our details like language, pin, amount to be withdrawn, etc. and then the final money which the cash dispenser releases is our outcome. In this case, the cash dispenser acts as an output unit. 

  • Memory Unit

When we enter the data into the computer using an input device, the entered information immediately gets saved in the memory unit of the Central Processing Unit (CPU). Because of the presence of some existing programming, the Memory Unit transmits the data further to the other parts of the CPU.

Similarly, when the output of our command is processed by the computer, it is saved in the memory unit before giving the output to the user.

  • Control Unit

This is the core unit which manages the entire functioning of the computer device. It is one of the most essential components of the computer system. 

The Control Unit collects the data entered using the input unit, leads it on for processing and once that is done, receives the output and presents it to the user. It can be said to the center of all processing actions taking place inside a computer device. 

Basically, the instructions taken, interpretation of entered data, issuing signals to execute the data and then finally retrieving the data is all done in the Control Unit. 

  • Arithmetic & Logical Unit

As the name suggests, all the mathematical calculations or arithmetic operations are performed in the Arithmetic and Logical Unit of the CPU. 

It can also perform actions like a comparison of data and decision-making actions. The ALU comprises circuits using which addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and other numerical based calculations can be performed.

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The Central Processing Unit is the core of any computer device. It comprises three major components of the computer which have been discussed above:

  • Memory Unit
  • Control Unit
  • Arithmetic and Logical Unit

All these three units are elements of the CPU and together help in the efficient working and processing of data. It is also known as the “Brain of Computer” and no action can be conducted by a device without the execution and permission of the Central Processing Unit.

The device is a close-knit circuit comparison microprocessor which helps in fetching the data and providing suitable results to the user. Thus, the CPU is the main processing unit of the computer.

Also, while discussing the various components of computers, it must be known that a device which is so complex and intricately made using circuits and wires comprises various other elements, which affects its overall programming and performance.



Define a Computer


Reading Assignment

Why is a Computer useful to society?


Weekend Assignment

List the five Components of a Computer and explain two.


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