• You must enroll in this course to access course content.


Welcome to class! 

In today’s class, we will be talking about building construction. Enjoy the class!

Building Construction: Building Components; Foundation, Walls and Floors

building construction

  • Foundation

building construction

A foundation can be defined as the part of a building which is in direct contact with the ground which carries the weight of the building.

NOTE: It may be in the form of stones and concrete.

Types of foundation

There are five major types of foundations namely:

 1. Strip foundation:

This is the type of foundation that is most suitable for small structures. It is a continuous deposit of concrete in the foundation trench on which the walls of the building are constructed.

building construction

2. Pad foundation:

It is a reinforced concrete base on which reinforce concrete columns are constructed. The size of the pad of foundation could be reduced by providing steel reinforcements towards the bottom of the foundation running in both directions.

building construction

3. Raft foundation:

It is used where the load-bearing capacity of the soil is weak. It is normally used in construction buildings on waterlogged land.


4. Pile foundation:

Piles are used in the construction of massive structures such as bridges.

5. Stepped foundation:

This is a strip foundation constructed on sloped ground. Furthermore, where the nature of the soil in a building site is not the same, the stepped foundation will be incorporated.

Functions of foundations
  1. Foundations receive and support the weight of walls, roofs, property and inhabitants in the building.
  2. Foundations are constructed to withstand the force of a strong wind.
  • Wall

building construction

Walls are the vertical structure of a building used mainly for the enclosure or division of space within a building.

Types of walls
 1. Partition wall:

It is used mainly to separate internal spaces for functional use. It could be made of wood, plastic, glass or metal materials.

2. Cavity wall:

It is a two-leaf block wall separated by a cavity for insulation purpose.

3. Brick wall:

It is constructed of brick units.

4. Block wall:

It is constructed by block units.

5. Veneered wall:

It is a wall covered with a layer of materials. E.g. tiles, facing bricks, e.t.c. for beauty.

6. Parapet wall:

This is a wall above the roof plane. It is used in concrete roof. It is also used the guide the edge of a roof or balcony.

Function of walls
  1. It is used to enclose or divide the space in a building into functional units.
  2. Walls provide beauty to the house and comfort for the occupant.
  3. It provides safety and security against external danger such as bad weather condition.
  4. Walls can also serve as fire protection.
  5. It helps to control sound as in a theatre or big assembly place.

Wall finishes include:

  1. Plastering
  2. Rendering
  3. Painting
  • Floor

building construction

A floor is the bottom horizontal surface of an enclosed space. It may be situated on the ground below or above the ground.

Types of flooring materials
 1. Timber floors:

Timber floors are still in demand where wood is obtainable. It is a cheap, durable and satisfactory material when property treated and constructed.

2.  Concrete floors:

It consists of sand, cement, gravel or crushed stones, concrete ground floors are widely used.

3. Steel floors:

They are used mainly in steel frames buildings. Most steel frames structures are in the sky-scraper (high rise building).

Types of floor
 1. The basement floor:

This type of floor is constructed on the ground level. It can be a concrete slab or timber.

2. The suspended floors:

It consists of wood which is needed over solid lengths of timber, the end of which is supported by the main walls of the building.

Examples of floor finishes

  1. Tiles floor
  2. Terrazzo
  3. Asbestos tiles
  4. Marble
  5. Asphalt tile
Function of floor
  1. It serves as a cover for the natural ground level.
  2. It provides support for the furniture and inhabitants, other materials and equipment in a building.


In our next class, we will be talking about the Building Components – Windows, Doors and Roofs.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

For more class notes, homework help, exam practice, download our App HERE

Join Telegram Community for exclusive content and support HERE


  1. pls there are only two main type of foundation shallow and deep foundation the once you mention are under these two
    very nice write up and drawing

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Don`t copy text!