Farm Mechanization


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In today’s class, we will be talking about farm mechanization. Enjoy the class!

Farm Mechanization

farm mechanization


  • Definition
  • Advantages of mechanization
  • Disadvantages of mechanization
  • Problems of mechanization
  • Prospects of mechanization

What is farm mechanization?

Farm Mechanization refers to the application of engineering principles and technology in agricultural production. It is the use of machines such as tractors, ploughs, harvesters, harrow, planter etc. as well as the use of farm inputs such as insecticides, improved seeds, fertilizer etc.

 The objective of mechanization is to:

  • reduce human labour (that is to reduce drudgery)
  • increase efficiency
  • save cost (in the long run)
  • save time
  • improve the standard of living by improving the quality and quantity of products available.
Advantages of farm mechanization
  1. It ensures that farm operations are done and completed within a shortest possible time
  2. It saves labour that could otherwise be useful elsewhere.
  3. It reduces health hazards and accidents that can occur from using tools.
  4. It reduces drudgery.
  5. It encourages large scale farming hence increasing output.
  6. It promotes specialization of labour for example machines operators become specialists in the machines they handle.
  7. It increases cooperation among farmers such as enabling them to put their resources together to buy machines and use them on a rotational basis thereby making them united.
  8. It on the long run saves labour cost, wastage, reduces errors and spoilage thereby leading to an increase in income (saved cost).
 Disadvantages of farm mechanization
  1. It involves a huge capital investment.
  2. With mechanization very few workers are needed which renders other labourers unemployed.
  3. The movement of heavy-duty machines on land leads to compaction of the soil.
  4. The smoke from the exhaust of machines can cause air pollution.
  5. Due to small landholdings as a result of the system of land tenure, use of machinery is not encouraged (e.g. communal land tenure).
  6. Continuous usage of machines on the soil tends to destroy the soil structure.
  7. Very few crops like maize, rice etc. can be mechanized.


  1. State five advantages of farm mechanization.
  2. State five disadvantages of farm mechanization.
 Limitation of farm mechanization
  1. Inadequate spare parts.
  2. Farmers are generally poor, cannot afford to buy machines like tractors etc.
  3. There is inadequate technical know-how on how to operate and repair farm machines.
  4. As a result of the small area of land cultivation, it is not economically advisable for farmers to use machines on their farm. This problem is created by a land tenure system.
  5. Seasonality of farm operation: Machines may be left unused because of seasonality nature of farming.
  6. Uneven land terrain makes it difficult to operate farm machines.
  7. Inadequate storage and processing facilities discourage large scale production.


  1. Define mechanization
  2. Outline five problems of farm mechanization in Nigeria
Prospects of mechanization
  1. Farmers should be educated to accept the modern system of mechanization.
  2. Provision of loans to enable farmers to purchase farm machines.
  3. Farmers should pool their resources together to buy farm machines.
  4. Land tenure system should be reviewed to make land available for farming.
  5. Simple and less expensive machines should be developed for a farmer to acquire.
  6. There should be engineering personnel trained to work on machines.


  1. Outline five factors limiting farm mechanization in Nigeria.
  2. What are the possible ways of improving agriculture through mechanization?
General evaluation
  1. What is mechanization?
  2. Outline five problems of agricultural mechanization.
  3. State five advantages and disadvantages of farm mechanization.
  4. State five limitations of farm mechanization.
  5. State five possible ways of improving agriculture through mechanization.

Reading assignment

  • Essential Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools by O.A. Iwena pages Chapter 13, page 117 – 121.
  • Answer the following questions from WAEC PAQ 2005 theory question 2, 1992 theory question 2


  1. What is mechanization?
  2. State four advantages and disadvantages each of mechanization in agriculture.


In our next class, we will be talking about Anatomy and physiology of farm animals.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

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