Welcome to class! 

In today’s class, we will be talking about advertising. Enjoy the class!


Digital Advertising: A Business Model That Is Hurting Our Institutions and Our Society | by Shayan Shokrgozar | Predict | Medium


  • Functions of Advertising
  • Types of Advertising
  • Media of Advertising
  • Merits and Demerits of Advertising

Advertising is the branch of commerce which deals with promoting sales of goods, services or ideas through messages that are meant to inform, educate and persuade the general public through various methods such as newspaper, radio, television.

Functions of advertising

  1. Creation of demand for goods and services
  2. Informing customers about the existence of new products in the market
  3. Persuading customers to buy particular products
  4. Educating the public about the uses of a particular product
  5. Used to promote the image of a firm as producers/sellers of high-quality goods and providers of efficient and reliable services
  6. It helps in creating brand loyalty
  7. It improves the quality of the products

Types of advertising

  1. Informative advertising: This is aimed at informing consumers about the existence/arrival of products. It also gives information about the benefits and uses of a product
  2. Persuasive advertising: This type of advertising uses convincing words/strategies to persuade the customers to buy a particular brand of a product
  3. Competitive advertising: This is aimed at convincing the customer that a particular product is better than others. It usually extols the qualities of the advertised brand over its rivals (i.e. close substitutes)
  4. Direct advertisement: This is used to advertise goods and services that are used by only a specific class of people e.g. a new brand of chalk could be advertised specifically to schools through the medium of an educational journal.
  5. Indirect advertisement: This form of advertisement is not directed to any section or class of people. It is used to advertise goods and services meant for all and sundry.
  6. Mass and specific advertising: Mass advertising involves the producers/sellers of similar products coming together to jointly advertise their products to the public. Mass advertising promotes the industry by convincing the public to use the product/service without reference to particular brands e.g. eggs.

Specific advertising directs its appeal on a particular brand which is unique.

Media of advertising/methods of advertising

  1. The Press (i.e. newspapers, magazines, journals etc.)
  2. Television
  3. Cinema
  4. Hoarding
  5. Radio
  6. Catalogues
  7. Posters
  8. Neon Signs
  9. Handbills/Pamphlets
  10. Exhibitions / Trade Fairs
  11. Window display /Interior displays
  12. Direct Mail etc.


  1. List five functions of advertising
  2. What is an advertising medium
  3. Give seven examples of advertising media in use in Nigeria.
Factors to be considered in choosing an advertising media
  1. The cost of using any of the media
  2. The type or nature of the product to be advertised
  3. The reach (i.e. the extent of coverage/size of the audience) of the medium
  4. The merits and demerits inherent in using the medium
  5. The frequency of exposures i.e. the number of times the same viewer/reader may be exposed to the same advert
  6. The target audience e.g. social/age group of the audience
Advantages of advertising
  1. It provides information about goods e.g. about the availability, price, features of the goods concerned
  2. It provides employment opportunities to people working in the advertising sector of the economy
  3. It builds and sustains the corporate image for firms
  4. It improves the quality of goods
  5. It educates the public on the use of certain goods
  6. It increases production i.e. it makes large scale production possible thereby leading to lower cost of production
  7. It increases the volume of sales/turnover of firms
  8. Advertising creates and sustains demand for goods
Disadvantages of advertising
  1. It induces wrong consumption patterns by inducing people to buy what they do not really need
  2. Advertising increases the cost and prices of goods sold to consumers
  3. It creates unhealthy competition by which an advertiser discredits the products of their rivals
  4. Advertising could mislead consumer through false claims
  5. It encourages the consumption of dangerous goods such as cigarettes and alcohol
  6. Advertising is most times wasteful in terms of resources
  7. It may lead to the emergence of private monopolies by preventing new entries to the market
  8. Advertising encourages the multiplication of brand names i.e. it encourages too many brands.


  1. State five factors to be considered before choosing an advertising medium
  2. State three advantages and three disadvantages of using each of the following media of advertising (a) Newspaper (b) Radio (c) Television (d) Poster (e) Direct Mail
General evaluation
  1. Explain five benefits that would be derived when a sole trader admits other partners
  2. State five features common to both public and private limited companies
  3. State five provisions of a memorandum of association
  4. State five disadvantages of international trade
  5. Explain five measures a country can take to solve its balance of payments problems

Reading assignment

  1. Essential Commerce for SSS by O.A. Longe Page 251 – 259
  2. Comprehensive Commerce for SSS Page 507 – 524


  1. Explain five functions of advertising.
  2. State five disadvantages of advertising.


In our next class, we will be talking about Public Relations/Consumer Services.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

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