ANIMAL HEALTH 

GOAT
Goat is a hollow horned small ruminant also belonging to the family Bovidea of the genus capra. Goat is reared for its meat, milk and hide and skin,.e.g. Morocco leather from Sokoto Red. Goat milk is the richest of all the milk produced by animals including man. vites
Breeds of Goat
(i) Sokoto Red (ii)Bornu Red (iii)West African long-legged goat (iv)West African dwarf goat (v) Bantu (vi) Anglo-Nubian (vii) Alphine (viii) Saanen (ix) Kano Brown (x) Bauchi type (xiv) Anglo (xv)Nandi (xvi) East African Small Goat. (xvii) Angora. (xi) Togenburg (xii) Nubian (xiiCattle
Terminology Used in Goat
Buck (Billy) – An adult male goat.
Doe (Nanny) – An adult female goat.
Kid – A young or baby goat.
Wether – A castrated male goat.
Kidding – Act of giving birth (parturition) in goat.
Chevon – Meat of goat.
Reasons for Rearing Goats in West Africa Reasons for rearing goats in West Africa are: for meat (food) production, for skin production, for milk production, highly prolific; producing twins and triplets two times a year, hardy animals which are exceptionally healthy, easier to keep, high economic value/feeding cost is low, for festivals and sacrificial offerings, for prestige purposes, for income, for employment, for educational purposes, e.g. teaching and research.
General Characteristics of Goats
1. Goats are tough and hardy animals that can survive unfavorable environmental He conditions.
2. They are small-bodied animals.
3. They can produce kids twice in a year.
4. Goats are reared mainly for skin, meat, milk and fiber
5. Male goats are often bearded.
6. Both male and deme goats have horns.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FARM ANIMALS
1. Source of Food (Protein): Virtually all farm animals provide food for mankind, especially protein, minerals and vitamins. Proteins are required by man for growth and repairs of body tissues. Man takes animal protein in the form of meat, milk and eggs.
2. Draught Animals: Most farm animals serve as draught in the form of farm power. Some farm animals such as bulls, donkeys and horses are used as sources of farm power, especially when they are involved in tillage equipment in crop production.
3. Sources of Hide and Skin: Hide and skin are derived from the skin of cattle, sheep, goats, rabbits etc. Hide and skin are used to make bags, shoes, foot wears, jackets and decorations.
4. Source of Farm Yard Manure: Animal dung or manure is produced mainly by all terrestial animals like cattle, sheep, goat and poultry birds. Farm yard manure serves as fertilisers and improves the structure and texture of the soil. It prevents erosion and has buffering effects on the soil.
5. Employment Opportunity: Animal husbandry provides employment for majority of livestock farmers in Nigeria. Animal husbandry provides jobs to cattle rearers, poultry farmers, pig farmers etc.
6. Source of Income: All farm animals are also reared to provide income to farmers. Egg production, broiler production and cattle rearing provide income to the farmers.
7. Industrial Uses: Farm animals are also known to provide raw materials for examples eggs are used in pharmaceutical industries (i.e. production of some medicines). Some other animal products are used for paint making, adhesives, manufacturing of vaccines and cosmetics.
8. Sources of Foreign Exchange: Some farm animals and their products can also be exported to other countries, thereby generating foreign exchange for the nation.
9. For Sports and Games: Some farm nimals such as horses are used in sports and ames, especially in horse riding and polo, etc.
10. Means of Transportation: Some farm animals such as donkeys, horses and camels e used as means of transportation in the rthern parts of Nigeria.
11. For Research Purposes: Some farm mals such as rabbits, snails, pigs, etc. are ed for research purposes which in turn becomes useful to humanity.
REVISION QUESTIONS

1. (a) What are farm animals?
(b) Define animal husbandry.
(c) State ten (10) farm animals you know.
(a) Identify the main classes of farm animals.
(b) List at least two (2) farm animals in each of the classes
3. (a) Write short notes on: (i) Monogastric and
(ii) Polygastric animals
(b) Distinguish between ruminant and non-ruminant livestock.
4. Distinguish between micro and macro farm animals and give three (3) examples of each.
5. Enumerate the economic importance of farm animals.

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