Revision

Welcome to today’s class!!

We are thrilled to have you in our class!!

In today’s Physical Education Class class, we will be focusing on  Revision 

Revision

Long Jump

revision

The objective of the long jump is simple – to cover the maximum possible distance with a horizontal jump. In essence, Long Jump is one of the most technically difficult track and field events to master.

Long jumpers start with a running start, pushing themselves in the air at a designated launching point, also called the take-off board, and try to achieve maximum distance in the air before landing inside a sand pit.

So, Long Jump consists of three parts. The runway, the take-off board and the sandpit to land in.

An athlete needs to ensure that their foot is flat on the ground to have optimum impact as jumping off either the heels or the toes has adverse impacts on the jump.

While jumping off the heels has a braking effect and reduces momentum, jumping with the toes destabilizes the body and runs the risk of the legs collapsing under the jumper, thereby severely decreasing the distance covered.

Maintaining proper body posture while take-off is also equally important as proper foot placement.

Athletes mostly use advanced techniques like kick, double-arm, sprint and power sprint or bounding for their take offs. Each has its advantages and disadvantages.

In summary, The long jump is a track and field event that requires speed in addition to a strong jump. There are three phases to the long jump: the approach, the takeoff, and the landing.

Techniques And Rules in Long Jump

The objective of the long jump is simple – to cover the maximum possible distance with a horizontal jump. That being said, Long Jump is one of the most technically difficult track and field events to master.

Long Jump Rules And Technique

Long jumpers start with a running start, propel themselves in the air at a designated launching point, also called the take-off board, and try to achieve maximum distance in the air before landing inside a sand pit.

So, the entire course consists of three parts. The runway, the take-off board and the sandpit to land in.

In official events, the runway measures 40m in length. It is similar to a running track used in sprinting, mid-distance or long-distance running events and is made out of a rubberised material laid over concrete.

At the end of the runway lies a 20cm wide take-off board. The runway and the take-off board must be level with each other.

The end of the take-off board is marked with a foul line. While taking off, the toe of the jumper’s shoe needs to be behind the foul line for a particular jump to be deemed legal. Crossing the line results in a foul jump and doesn’t count.

After being airborne, the jumper lands in the sandpit placed on the other side of the take-off board.

The distance covered, from the edge of the take-off board to the indentation in the sand (made by any part of the athlete’s body while landing) closest to the take-off board, is measured.

In summary, the entire jump needs to be completed within one minute after the long jumper steps into the runway. Long jumpers are allowed to wear spikes if they prefer but the sole of their shoe cannot be more than 13mm thick.

Football

Football is the most popular sport in the world and sees opposing teams of 11 players try to score goals primarily by use of the feet.

The aim of football is to score more goals than your opponent in a 90 minute playing time frame. The match is split up into two halves of 45 minutes. After the first 45 minutes players will take a 15 minute rest period called half time. The second 45 minutes will resume and any time deemed fit to be added on by the referee (injury time) will be accordingly.

Football has its roots in ancient China while the modern version of the game began on the streets of medieval England. Neighboring towns would play each other in games where a heaving mass of players would struggle to drag a pig’s bladder by any means possible to markers at either end of town.

Each team consists of 11 players. These are made up of one goalkeeper and ten outfield players. 

Essentially the equipment that is needed for a soccer match is pitch and a football. Additionally players can be found wearing studded football boots, shin pads and matching strips. The goalkeepers will additionally wear padded gloves as they are the only players allowed to handle the ball. Each team will have a designated captain.

To score the ball must go into your opponent’s goal. The whole ball needs to be over the line for it to be a legitimate goal. A goal can be scored with any part of the body apart from the hand or arm up to the shoulder. 

To win you have to score more goals than that of your opponents. If the scores are level after 90 minutes then the game will end as a draw apart from in cup games where the game can go to extra time and even a penalty shootout to decide the winner. 

In summary, in Football, players must use their feet to kick the ball and are prohibited to use their hands apart from goalkeepers who can use any part of their body within the 18 yard box.

Rules And Regulations in Football 

revision
High school boys practicing football using cones for dribbling drill in the court

The aim of football is to score more goals than your opponent in a 90 minute playing time frame. The match is split up into two halves of 45 minutes. After the first 45 minutes players will take a 15 minute rest period called half time. The second 45 minutes will resume and any time deemed fit to be added on by the referee (injury time) will be accordingly.

Rules of Football 

  • A match consists of two 45 minute halves with a 15 minute rest period in between.
  • Each team can have a minimum of 11 players (including 1 goalkeeper who is the only player allowed to handle the ball within the 18 yard box) and a minimum of 7 players are needed to constitute a match.
  • The field must be made of either artificial or natural grass. The size of pitches is allowed to vary but must be within 100-130 yards long and 50-100 yards wide. The pitch must also be marked with a rectangular shape around the outside showing out of bounds, two six yard boxes, two 18 yard boxes and a center circle. A spot for a penalty placed 12 yards out of both goals and center circle must also be visible.
  • The ball must have a circumference of 58-61cm and be of a circular shape.
  • Each team can name up to 7 substitute players. Substitutions can be made at any time of the match with each team being able to make a maximum of 3 substitutions per side. In the event of all three substitutes being made and a player having to leave the field for injury the team will be forced to play without a replacement for that player.
  • Each game must include one referee and two assistant referee’s (linesmen). It’s the job of the referee to act as timekeeper and make any decisions which may need to be made such as fouls, free kicks, throw ins, penalties and added on time at the end of each half. The referee may consult the assistant referees at any time in the match regarding a decision. It’s the assistant referee’s job to spot offsides in the match (see below), throw ins for either team and also assist the referee in all decision making processes where appropriate.
  • If the game needs to head to extra time as a result of both teams being level in a match then 30 minutes will be added in the form of two 15 minute halves after the allotted 90 minutes.
  • If teams are still level after extra time then a penalty shootout must take place.
  • The whole ball must cross the goal line for it to constitute a goal.
  • For fouls committed a player could receive either a yellow or red card depending on the severity of the foul; this comes down to the referee’s discretion. The yellow is a warning and a red card is a dismissal of that player. Two yellow cards will equal one red. Once a player is sent off then they cannot be replaced.
  • If a ball goes out of play off an opponent in either of the side lines then it is given as a throw in. If it goes out of play off an attacking player on the base line then it is a goal kick. If it comes off a defending player it is a corner kick.

 

Evaluation

  • What is Long Jump
  • Identify two important skills in Long Jump. 

 

Reading Assignment

  • Mention three techniques in Long Jump.
  • What is Football?

 

Weekend Assignment

  • Name two football players in Nigeria

We hope you enjoyed today’s class. See you in the next term!

Let us know your thoughts and questions in the comment section, and we will attend to them as fast as we can.

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