Vocabulary Development: Business


Welcome to class! 

In today’s class, we will be talking about vocabulary development: business, etc. Enjoy the class!

Comprehension: Business

The passage centres on the establishment of PZ Cussons and its gradual growth in the nineteenth century. It was formerly known as PZ until 1975 when it acquired Cussons. Thus, in 2002, it was renamed PZ Cussons to underline its core product range.

Today, PZ Cussons is a leading public company with interests worldwide.


Questions on Page 87

Vocabulary Development: Business

The passage consists of two passages on business. Some of the words used in them include trade, entrepreneurs, enterprises, factories, industries, apprentices, labourers, warehouse, stock, manager, export, retail, merchant, etc.


Vocabulary, Page 88.


Nouns formed from adjectives

Adjectives                                                                Nouns

  1. able                                                                           Ability
  2. holy                                                                            Holiness
  3. lazy                                                                             laziness
  4. clean                                                                         cleanliness
  5. bitter                                                                          bitterness
  6. dark                                                                           darkness
  7. warm                                                                         warmth
  8. wise                                                                            wisdom
  9. young                                                                        youth
  10. strong                                                                        strength
  11. poor                                                                           poverty
  12. ill                                                                                  illness
  13. heavy                                                                          heaviness
  14. equal                                                                         equality

Nouns formed from verbs

Verbs                                                                         Nouns

  1. repeat                                                                         repetition
  2. mix                                                                              mixture
  3. injure                                                                          injury
  4. enjoy                                                                         enjoyment
  5. bond                                                                         bondage
  6. choose                                                                        choice
  7. accuse                                                                        accusation
  8. enter                                                                          entrance
  9. differ                                                                          difference
  10. hate                                                                                hatred
  11. govern                                                                           government
  12. endure                                                                            endurance
  13. satisfy                                                                         satisfaction
  14. think                                                                           thought


Write the nouns of the following words:

(i) lose (ii) obey (iii) lend (iv) omit (v) give (vi) long (vii) true (viii) deep (ix) hard (x) fertile

Monophthongs and Diphthongs

The vowels in English are classified into two main groups pure vowels (monophthongs) and diphthongs


The monophthongs are sub-classified into short vowels and long vowels.


Diagram showing the English vowel chart.

The monophthongs are listed below with examples of words where they occur.

  1. / i: / –           beat, seat
  2. / i / –           bit, sit
  3. / e / –           bed, hen
  4. /æ/ –           cart, part
  5. /a:/ –           cart, part
  6. / כ / –           Pot, cork
  7. /כ:/ –           port, cork
  8. /u / –           put, foot
  9. /u:/ –           two, woo
  10.  /л/      –           hut, cut
  11. /3:/ –           bird, herb
  12. /ə/ akin, baker


The diphthongs differ from the pure vowels (monophthongs) because their articulation involves a glide from one vowel quality to the other. There are eight diphthongs in English and their phonetic symbols indicate the initial and final vowels represented in the articulation.


Diagram showing the diphthongs in English.

The diphthongs are listed below with examples of words where they occur.

  1. /ei/ –           pay, again
  2. /əu/      –           go, home
  3. / αi/ –           rice, kite
  4. /au/ –           cow, house
  5. / כi/        –           toy, voice
  6. /iə/       –          ear, here
  7. /eə/ –           air, hair
  8. /uə/ –           poor, tour


Exercise 1, Question C, Nos 1 – 10, Page 30. Exercise 2, Question B, Page 31 Oral English for Schools and Colleges.

General evaluation


  1. Meteors: Summarise the passage in three short sentences.

Structure:  State the grammatical functions of the underlined expressions;

  1. Mr John who lost her sight a year ago was elected to the council last week.
  2. She gave us direction to the restaurant where we are to meet for lunch.
  3. What are the nouns formed from these verbs: lose, lend, do, omit, injure.

Letter Writing

  1. Write a letter to your friend who is in another school about your annual inter-house sports which you celebrated recently.


In our next class, we will be talking about Essay Writing: Formal and Informal Letters.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

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