Structure: Lexical and Auxiliary Verbs


Welcome to class! 

In today’s class, we will be talking about structure: lexical and auxiliary verbs, etc. Enjoy the class!

Comprehension: Law Enforcement Agreement

The passage centres on the attempts by the Nigeria Government to curb drug trafficking in the country. Nigeria’s geographical position gives it the unfortunate distinction of being the natural hub for drug trafficking to and from the Americas, to Europe and across Africa. The United State Government signed an executive agreement on procedures for mutual assistance in law enforcement matters in November 1987. Some success has been recorded but much still remains to be done.


Questions, Page 64

Vocabulary Development: Justice Delayed

Some of the words related to the law include investigation, punishment, plaintiff sentence, trial, legal, judge etc.


Vocabulary, Page 64.

Lexical and Auxiliary Verbs

Lexical verbs:

Lexical (or main) verbs are those that can stand done as the verb element of the sentence.


  1. Dike did the work yesterday.
  2. We are students.
  3. John cut down the tree today.

Where the verb element of a sentence consists of more than one verb, the lexical (main) verb always appears last.


  1. Dike has done the work
  2. We are studying English
  3. I have read the book.

Auxiliary verbs:

Auxiliary verbs are those that help the main verbs perform their functions. There are two kinds of auxiliary verbs: Primary and modal. A major difference between the two kinds is that; while the primary auxiliaries can also be used as lexical verbs, the modal auxiliaries cannot.

Primary auxiliaries: be, do, have.

  1. be  – I am going to school
  2. do – Charles did not attend class.
  3. Have – I have done the work.

Modal auxiliaries:

  1. can – Joy can go if she likes
  2. could – John could run fast when he was young.
  3. may – Obi may come with us.
  4. might – It might rain this afternoon.
  5. shall – I shall attend the party.
  6. will –  He will play for us today.
  7. should – We should eat the food since it is safe.
  8. would – If I had a car, I would travel often.
  9. must  –  You must tell the truth
  10. ought to – Every student ought to study hard.
  11. use to –  We used to fly kites when we were young
  12. need – You need to leave now
  13. dare – Nobody dare insult our leader.


Make five sentences with the following. be, do, have, could, may.

Speech Work: Consonants

There are twenty –four consonants in a speech in English. Three factors are usually considered in the classification of consonants. These are ‘place of articulation’, ‘manner of articulation and ‘state of the glottis? This chart below shows the classification according to these features.

Manner of articulation     State of the Glottis             Place of Articulation

Voiceless        Voiced

p                     b                     Bilabial

STOP                                      t                       d                     Alveolar

(PLOSIVE)                             k                      g                     Velar

FRICATIVE                            f                       v                      Labio-dental

θ                                             Dental

s                       z                      Alveolar

S                                              Palato-Alveolar

h                                              Glottal

AFFRICATE                           ts                     d                     Plato-Alveolar

LATERAL                                                        l                       Alveolar

LIQUID                                                           r                       Alveolar

SEMI-VOWEL                                                w                     Bilabial

j                       Palatal

m                    Bilabial

NASAL                                                           h                      Alveolar

ŋ                      Velar


Examples of words where the consonants occur.

  1. / p / –           pan, nap
  2. / b / –           bud, rub
  3. / t / –           tea, seat
  4. / d / –           dip, hide
  5. /k/ –           come, pack
  6. / g / –           get, rag
  7. / f / –           fork, cough
  8. / v / –           van, live
  9. / θ / –           think, both
  10. / /     –           this, breathe
  11. / s / –           sip, place
  12. / z / –           zink, has
  13. /s/ –           ship, fish
  14. /З/ –           genre, garage
  15. / h/ –           hat, behave
  16. / ts/ –           cheap, teach
  17. / d З / –           joy, page
  18. / l / –           lock, sell
  19. / r/ –           rag, borrow
  20. / w/ –           win, rewind
  21. / j/ –           yes, new
  22. /m/ –           man, him
  23. / n / –           net, rain
  24. / ŋ/ –           singer, bang
General evaluation


Verb Tenses

Fill in the blank spaces with the correct forms of the verbs in the brackets.

  1. Amadi has never……….. late to school. (come)
  2. His mother, together with his sisters,……… the bakery. (work)
  3. He ……….. a lot of reading everyday. (do)
  4. My friend and confidant ………. in Lagos. (live)
  5. Either his brother or his cousins ………… him advise. (give)


In our next class, we will be talking about Vocabulary Development: Justice.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

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