Back to: ENGLISH LANGUAGE SS3
Welcome to class!
In today’s class, we will be talking about speech work, etc. Enjoy the class!
Comprehension: Helping Addicts
The passage is adapted from the Evening Standard. It centres on a psychotherapist named Malcolm Scott and his attempt to help drug addicts. He puts them up in the lonely house where he lives. He and his patients get to know each other pretty well during this time: there are few distractions in the lonely house and the nearest bar is ten kilometres away.
Questions, Page 99.
Some words related to addiction are medicines, injections, trafficker, addict, cocaine, heroin, drug, crave, illegal, etc.
Addiction, Page 100.
Speech Work: Stress in Words of Seven Syllables and Compound Words
Stress is an important feature of speech. It is to give extra force to a word or syllable when saying it.
Words of seven syllables
- In – a-ccess-i-BIL-i-ty
Identify the syllable with the stress in the following words.
A summary is a record in a reader’s own words that gives the main points of a piece of writing such as a newspaper article, the chapter of a book, or even a whole book. It is also possible to summarize something that you have heard, such as a lecture, or something that you have seen and heard, such as a movie. A summary omits details and does not include the reader’s interpretation of the original.
Important things to note about summary writing
As you read, underline all the important points and all the important evidence. For example, you could look for all the topic sentences. Words that are repeated several times are likely to be keywords. Transition words can help to understand the overall structure of a passage.2. List or cluster the main idea of the whole piece, the main supporting ideas, and the main evidence for each idea. Use of the same keywords or technical expressions is probably unavoidable. However, be careful to express the ideas in your own way, using your own vocabulary and expressions as much as possible, rather than copying or just rearranging. Do not include too much detail.
Features of a good summary
- A good summary should give an objective outline of the whole piece of writing. It should answer basic questions about the original text such as “Who did what, where, and when?”, or “What is the main idea of the text?”, “What are the main supporting points?”, “What are the major pieces of evidence?”. It should not be a paraphrase of the whole text using your own words. A reference should be made to the original piece either in the title (“A Summary of…”), in the first sentence, or a footnote or endnote.
- You should not give your own ideas or criticisms as part of the summary. However, if you want to comment on a piece of writing it is usual to begin by summarizing it as objectively as possible.
- A good summary should not include selected examples, details, or information which are not relevant to the piece of writing taken as a whole.
- A good summary of an essay should probably include the main idea of each paragraph, and the main evidence supporting that idea unless it is not relevant to the article or essay as a whole. A summary does not need a conclusion, but if the original ends with a message to the reader this should not be left out. (A good summary of a chapter should probably include the main idea of each group of paragraphs or each section; a good summary of a book should probably include the main idea of each chapter, or perhaps the main idea of each section of each chapter.)
- A good summary may use keywords from the original text but should not contain whole phrases or sentences from the original unless quotation marks are used. Quotations should only be made if there is a reason for using the original words, for example, because the choice of words is significant, or because the original is so well expressed.
- Rearranging the words used in the original, or keeping the same structure but just substituting different words is not enough. You must express the sense of the original using your own words and structures.
How to write a summary of a short piece of writing
- As you read, underline all the important points and all the important evidence. For example, you could look for all the topic sentences. If there is a word or words that are repeated throughout the passage, this is likely to be related to the topic. Transitional words and phrases should help you to understand how the piece is joined together. The main idea should be in the first or second paragraph, probably in a thesis statement at the end of the paragraph, or in the concluding paragraph. (You could look out for the 5Ws – What? Which?, Who?, Where?, When?, Why? – and the 1H – How?)
- List or cluster the main idea of the whole piece, the main supporting ideas, and the main evidence for each idea. Be careful to use your own words rather than copying or just rearranging. In other words, try to find your own way of expressing the writer’s ideas. Of course, you can use keywords or phrases. (For example, if the piece of writing is about digital technology, it is fine to use key technical words that are in the original, such as “digital technology”, “binary digit” or “analog”.) Do not include too much detail.
- Change the order if necessary, so that the main idea comes first and is followed by the supporting ideas and evidence in a logical sequence. Omit any repetitions.
- If the original uses ‘I’ replace this with the writer’s actual surname, “the writer”, or “s/he”. If the original uses ‘you’, substitute “people” or “they”.
- You should now be ready to write the summary. Start with a sentence that a) identifies the writer and the piece of writing, for example by giving the writer’s name, the title of the piece and where/when it appeared, and b) gives the main idea. Use transition words to join everything together.
- Tell a story that ends with the words….. and l have had to live with this stigma for the rest of my life.
- There has been an outbreak of epidemic in your area, write an article for publication in a health magazine stating the causes and effects, and suggesting what should be done to check it
- Recently there was a rainstorm which caused a lot of damage in your locality. Write an article for publication in your school magazine, describing the rainstorm, the damage caused and its effect on the people.
- You quarrelled with a very good friend of yours sometimes ago and since then both of you have not been on speaking terms. Write a letter to him or her expressing your regret at the break of the relationship and your desire for reconciliation.
- Write a letter to the commissioner for education in your state deploring the low level of food production in the state and suggesting measures in which the government should take to ensure that there is sufficient food for all.
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