End-User Database

 

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In today’s class, we will be talking about the end-user database. Enjoy the class!

End-User Database

End-User Database classnotes.ng

End-user databases consist of data developed by individual end-users. Examples of these are collections of documents, spreadsheets, presentations, multimedia, and other files. Several products exist to support such databases. Some of them are much simpler than full-fledged DBMSs, with more elementary DBMS functionality.

  • A federated database system comprises several distinct databases, each with its own DBMS. It is handled as a single database by a federated database management system (FDBMS), which transparently integrates multiple autonomous DBMSs, possibly of different types (in which case it would also be a heterogeneous database system), and provides them with an integrated conceptual view.
  • Sometimes the term multi-database is used as a synonym to federated database, though it may refer to a less integrated (e.g., without an FDBMS and a managed integrated schema) group of databases that cooperate in a single application. In this case, typically middleware is used for distribution, which typically includes an atomic commit protocol (ACP), e.g., the two-phase commit protocol, to allow distributed (global) transactions across the participating databases.
  • A graph database is a kind of NoSQL database that uses graph structures with nodes, edges, and properties to represent and store information. General graph databases that can store any graph are distinct from specialized graph databases such as triplestores and network databases.
  • An array DBMS is a kind of NoSQL DBMS that allows to model, store, and retrieve (usually large) multi-dimensional arrays such as satellite images and climate simulation output.
  • In a hypertext or hypermedia database, any word or a piece of text representing an object, e.g., another piece of text, an article, a picture, or a film, can be hyperlinked to that object. Hypertext databases are particularly useful for organizing large amounts of disparate information. For example, they are useful for organizing online encyclopedias, where users can conveniently jump around the text. The World Wide Web is thus a large distributed hypertext database.
  • A knowledgebase (abbreviated KBkb is a special kind of database for knowledge management, providing the means for the computerized collection, organization, and retrieval of knowledge. Also a collection of data representing problems with their solutions and related experiences.
  • A mobile database can be carried on or synchronized from a mobile computing device.
  • Operational databases store detailed data about the operations of an organization. They typically process relatively high volumes of updates using transactions. Examples include customer databases that record contact, credit, and demographic information about a business’ customers, personnel databases that hold information such as salary, benefits, skills data about employees, enterprise resource planning systems that record details about product components, parts inventory, and financial databases that keep track of the organization’s money, accounting and financial dealings.
  • A parallel database seeks to improve performance through parallelization for tasks such as loading data, building indexes and evaluating queries.

The major parallel DBMS architectures which are induced by the underlying hardware architecture are:

  • Shared memory architecture, where multiple processors share the main memory space, as well as other data storage.
  • Shared disk architecture, where each processing unit (typically consisting of multiple processors) has its own main memory, but all units share the other storage.
  • Shared nothing architecture, where each processing unit has its own main memory and other storage.
  • Probabilistic databases employ fuzzy logic to draw inferences from imprecise data.
  • Real-time databases process transactions fast enough for the result to come back and be acted on right away.
  • A spatial database can store the data with multidimensional features. The queries on such data include location-based queries, like “Where is the closest hotel in my area?”.
  • A temporal database has built-in time aspects, for example, a temporal data model and a temporal version of SQL. More specifically the temporal aspects usually include valid-time and transaction-time.
  • A terminology-oriented database builds upon an object-oriented database, often customized for a specific field.
  • An unstructured data database is intended to store in a manageable and protected way diverse objects that do not fit naturally and conveniently in common databases. It may include email messages, documents, journals, multimedia objects, etc. The name may be misleading since some objects can be highly structured. However, the entire possible object collection does not fit into a predefined structured framework. Most established DBMSs now support unstructured data in various ways, and new dedicated DBMSs are emerging.

Database organisation

There are four main types of database organization:

  • Flat
  • Hierarchical
  • Relational
  • Object-oriented
Flat database organization:

A “flat file” is a plain text or mixed text and binary file which usually contains one record per line or ‘physical’ record. Such as a list of names, addresses, and phone numbers written on a sheet of paper is a flat-file database. This can also be done with any typewriter or word processor. A spreadsheet or text editor program may be used to implement flat-file databases.

Hierarchical database organization:

A database organization method that is structured in a hierarchy. In a hierarchical database, records contain groups of parent/child relationships, similar to a tree structure. Hierarchical databases are fast and simple but inflexible as the relationship is restricted to one-to-many, only allowing for one parent segment per child.

Relational Database organization:

A relational database is a collection of data items organized as a set of formally described tables from which data can be accessed easily. relational databases are one of the most effective types of database organization. Relational database systems are an application of mathematical set theory to the problem of effectively organizing data.

A relational database is created using the relational model. The software used in a relational database is called a relational database management system (RDBMS). A relational database is a predominant choice in storing data, over other models like the hierarchical database model or the network model.

The standard user and application program interface to a relational database is the structured query language (SQL). SQL statements are used both for interactive queries for information from a relational database and for gathering data for reports.

Object-oriented database organization:

An object-oriented database organization is a database management system in which information is represented in the form of objects as used in object-oriented programming. This includes some kind of support for classes of objects and the inheritance of class properties and methods by subclasses and their objects.

Evaluation
  1. Define database
  2. What is the database concept?
  3. What are the forms of databases?
  4. List 6 types of databases

List and explain the four main types of database organization

 

In our next class, we will be talking about Graphic Design.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

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