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In today’s class, we will be talking about the party system. Enjoy the class!
It refers to a political arrangement in which government can only be constituted upon the election of a political party in a democratic electoral setting. A party system is a concept in comparative political science concerning the system of government by political parties in a democratic country.
Types of the party system
One party/single-party system:
It is an arrangement in which only one single party is legally recognized to converse for vote and present candidate for election. It is a common feature for communist or socialist country e.g. North Korea, Cuba, China, Kenya e.t.c
- True single party: This effectively prevents the formation of any other active parties
- Hegemonic party: This enjoys unchallenged authority and the law does not operate formally against any opposition.
- Pre-dominant party: This is a party which is elected and continues to be elected.
- One officially recognized
- Recognized by the constitution
- No private control of the mass media
- There is only one ideology to the country
- Government policies are strictly enforced
- It promotes unity as all politician are accommodated within the only existing party
- It makes use of the most competent people
- It is economical
- It makes the process of decision making faster
- It is non-democratic as it does not present the voters with a choice
- It encourages violence of government
- It gives room for corruption
- There is limited political education for the people
This is an arrangement in which only two political parties are recognized to contest for elected posts, a good example is the United States where they have a republican and democratic party which are dominant. Britain is another good example where they have labour and conservative party
- There is room for another contesting party
- It gives room for press freedom
- There is an opportunity for choice of candidate and parties
- It accommodates democratic principles and allows operation of the rule of law
- It is more democratic than a one-party system because it allows for the choice of candidates and program
- It promotes political stability in the country
- It prevents dictatorship which can come up in a one-party system
- It facilitates the existence of an opposition party to check on the excesses of the ruling party and government
- Division of the country into two fractions
- Decision-making sense to the slower
- It is more expensive to run
- It does not promote unity
- It may encourage electoral malpractices
This is an arrangement in which multiple parties exist with each producing a reasonable and good candidate to be elected into government. This party system is regarded as a democratic party system, for example, Since Nigeria’s second republic (1979-1985), it has recognized different political parties, a coalition government is usually formed in a multi-party system.
- Existence of many parties
- Legal recognition of all political parties
- Easy choice of individual parties and programs
- It enhances political education
- It gives room for a coalition government
- It increases the scope of political participation
- It gives room for wider choice for the electorate
- It reduces the chances of the emergency of a single party dictatorship
- It encourages party organization through competition
- It may aid political instability as different people/parties from a government one after the other in succession
- It brings bribery and corruption
- Forming a coalition government is usually weak and unstable
- It may lead to confusion due to too many political programs
Zero party system:
This has to do with a standard where party leaders are elected by people on an individual basis. There is no political party and candidates are mostly independent and elected according to their members.
- Proper management of time
- Discourages electoral malpractices
- The conduct of the election is very simple to operate
- It reduces cost
- Decision making is quick and purposeful
- It may encourage political instability
- There is an absence of a public manifesto
- Define party system and explain five (5) types of party systems.
- What are the characteristics of a multi-party system?
- What are the main advantages and disadvantages of a one-party system?
- Differentiate between a one-party and a two-party system.
- Define a zero-party system.
In our next class, we will be talking about Pressure Groups. We hope you enjoyed the class.
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