Lumber vertebrae

The lumber vertebrae are found in the upper abdomen region. In rabbit, they are seven in number.

Characteristics of the Lumber Vertebrae

(i) It has a large flattened transverse process.

(ii) It has broad and flat neural spine.

(iii) It has large and thick centrum

(iv) It has well developed pre and post zygapophyses.

(v) It also has two extra paired projections ( anapophysis and metapophysis) for attachment of abdomen muscles.

Functions of the Lumber Vetebrae

(i) The lumber vertebrae provides attachment muscles.

(ii) They bear considerable weight of the body.

Sacral vertebrae

The sacral vertebrae are found in the lower abdominal region. In rabbit, they are four in number. They fused together to form a structure called sacrum.

Characteristics of the Sacral Vertebra

(i) It has a narrow neural canal.

(ii) It has a neural spine which is reduced to a small notch.

(iii) It has a large centrum.

(iv) The first sacral vertebra has a pair of

transverse process which is large and

wing-like, but the others are attached to

the muscles of the back.

(v) The first sacral vertebra has a small neural alay canal which gradually becomes narrower in other vertebrae.


They are joined to the pelvic girdles to provide support, rigidity and strength.

Caudal Vertebrae


The caudal vertebrae are found in the tail region. They decrease in size from the sacrum backwards. In rabbit, they are sixteen in numbers. They are fused together to form a structure called coccyx which project from the body.

Characteristics of Caudal Vertebrae

(I) It has no neural spine.

(ii) It has no neural canal.

(iii) It appears as a solid, rectangular mass of bone.

(iv) It has no transverse process.

Functions of the Caudal Vertebra

(I) They support the tail.

(B) The Appendicular Skeleton

The appendicular skeleton is made up of the girdles, i.e., pectoral and pelvic girdles as well as the bones of the limbs, i.e., fore limbs and hind limbs.

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