Comprehension/Listening Skills-Listening to Grasp the Main Points. Structure, Present Tense -Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous. Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Government and Politics.

Welcome to class! 

In today’s class, we will be talking about tenses, etc. Enjoy the class!

Comprehension/Listening Skills-Listening to Grasp the Main Points.

Structure, Present Tense -Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous.

Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Government and Politics.

comprehension english classnotesng

  • Comprehension

The passage focuses on colour selection and clash of textures and styles. Therefore, read the passage in between the lines and give a comprehensive interpretation of the content. Thereafter, answer all the questions beneath the passage.

Tenses-english classnotesng

  • Tenses

Tense is an aspect of the verb that expresses the timing of an action, the performance of the action might be in the present, past, or future time.

Types of the present tense
  1. Simple present tense
  2. Present continuous
  3. Present perfect tense and
  4. Present perfect continuous.
Simple present tense:

It expresses those actions that we do on a daily basis. It expresses habitual action E.g. I eat rice, I work.

  • Singular: The man knows my name.
  • Plural: The men know my name.

It is also used to state the natural or the universal truth. E.g.

  1. The earth is spherical.
  2. .Africa is the second largest continent.

It is also used in running football commentaries. E.g. Alex Iwobi passes the ball to Victor Moses, Moses dribbles a player and hits the ball into the back of the net and it is a goal, oh no! The referee disqualifies that.

Present continuous tenses:

It’s an action that is still in progress. It is formed by adding (ing) to the verb

E.g.   Goring -going-talking. Is or are is added to the verb root, – is coming, – are going.


  1. She is cooking.
  2. We are playing football.
Present perfect tenses:

It is formed by using has or have plus the perfect form of the verb root/participle.


  1. They have gone out.
  2. He has spoken to her,
  3. We have done the work.
Present perfect continuous:

It is formed by adding have/has to been” before adding “ing” verb e.g.

  1. I have been working.
  2. They have been doing it.
  3. She has been singing.

vocabulary development english classnotesng

  • Vocabulary development

Words Associated with Government and Politics.

Definition of Some Relevant Words

  1. Government: This is a group of people who steers the affairs of a state.
  2. Democracy: This is a government whereby the majority rule a state. It is the government of the people, by the people and for the people.
  3. Oligarchy: This is the system of government whereby few privileged and powerful people. It is the government of the minority.
  4. Mace: This is a symbol of authority in the legislative chamber, e.g. national assembly.
  5. Adjudicate: To settle a legal case or other dispute. This is usually done by the Judiciary.
  6. Bill: This is a draft of a law, presented to a legislature for enactment. A bill is a proposed law.
  7. Enactment: This is an act of making a law.
  8. Promulgation: This is an act of making laws known to people rule a state. It is an act of announcing laws which have been enacted or made.
  9. Assent: This is the president’s approval to a bill in form of signature. With that, the bill has become law.
  10. Rule of law: This is the supremacy of law over everyone in a country.
  11. Constitutionalism: This is a principle which states that both the government and the governed must abide by the provision of the constitution.
  12. Ultra vire: It means beyond one’s power.
  13. Null and void: This means ‘invalid’ because such has been declared unconstitutional.
  14. Bureaucracy: These are structures and regulations put in place to control governmental activities or operations.
  15. Recess: A period in the parliamentary year where the lawmakers are meant to be on holidays.
  16. Legislator/parliamentarian: This is another name for a lawmaker.
  17. Gubernatorial: Connected to the position of a governor. E.g. Gubernatorial election, gubernatorial seat.
  18. Senatorial: Connected to the position of a senator, e.g senatorial slot, senatorial elections.
  19. Ministry: This is a government department, at the administrative level normally headed by a minister.
  20. Portfolio: This is a post; and responsibilities of a cabinet minister or other heads of a government department.
  21. Cabinet: A group of ministers or aids working with a president or a governor
  22. Autocracy: This is a form of government in which unlimited power is held by a single individual.
  23. The fundamental rights of the people are denied or not guaranteed. Another name for this I despotism or tyranny.
  24. Gavel: This is a wooden mallet, used by a judge in a courtroom or by the senate president, speakers of houses of assembly during legislative proceedings.
  25. Delimitation: This is a process of carving out of constituencies by the electoral commission.
  26. Constituencies: These are districts carved out for the purpose of representations
  27. Gerrymandering: This is carving out of constituencies in a dishonest or an unfair manner.
  28. Defection: This is when one dumps one political party for another. This is synonymous to cross carpeting.
  29. Prorogue: This is to suspend or bring a parliamentary life to an end.
  30. Confederalism: This is a loosed political arrangement.
  31. Nationalism: This is an opposition to foreign rule and domination
  32. Jingoism: This is excessive love for one’s country and hatred for others.

Write fifteen vocabularies of government and politics and use them in sentences.


In our next class, we will be talking about Comprehension: Comprehending Word, ‘Beauty’ Meanings in Context; Structure: Auxiliaries, “will and would”; Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Photography.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

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