Structures: Learning about Noun Clause; Vocabulary Development: Transportation- Aviation, Rail, Road and Maritime. Speech Work: Introduction to Consonant Sounds. Essay Writing: More on Narrative- A story that ends with, “It Pays to be Hard-working”. 

Welcome to class! 

In today’s class, we will be talking about the introduction to consonant sounds. Enjoy the class!

Structures: Learning about Noun Clause

Vocabulary Development: Transportation- Aviation, Rail, Road and Maritime.

Speech Work: Introduction to Consonant Sounds.

Essay Writing: More on Narrative- A story that ends with, “It Pays to be Hard-working”. 


  • Vocabulary development- transportation

Air transportation
  1. Taxi- The process of a plane moving slowly along the ground before beginning to run forward for take-off.
  2. Runway: This is a wide path from which aircraft take off and on which they land.
  3. Tarmac: This is the surface of a road, runway at an airport. E.g. The plane was waiting on the tarmac.
  4. Air hostess: A young woman who looks after passengers in an aircraft.
  5. Flight: A journey in a plane.
  6. Airborne: In the air. If a plane is airborne, it is in the air.
  7. Radar: This is the method of showing the direction and the distance of a plane by means of radio waves.
  8. Touch down: A plane touches down when it lands.
  9. Hangar: This is where aircraft are housed
  10. Control tower: This is where air traffic controllers sit and direct plane traffic
  11. Cockpit: A compartment in which the pilot of an aeroplane sits.
Sea transportation/maritime
  1. Mast: a long pole set upright on a ship to support the sail or flag.
  2. International waters: waters across the country’s water territory. It is called waters- not water.
  3. Berth: a place in the port where a ship can be moored.
  4. Boatyard: this is a place where boats are built or repaired or fasten by rope.
  5. Harbor: A place of shelter for a ship.
  6. Quayside: This is the side or edge of a quay.
  7. Ocean liner- Ship used to carry passengers and some cargo is across the ocean
  8. Cruise ship- This type of ship is used for adventurism
  9. Cabin: This is a private room in a ship
  10. Yacht: A boat or small ship, usually with sails, often with an engine, built and used for racing or cruising.
  11. Row-row ship- This is used to convey cars into the country. Such ship will be widely opened for various cars on the ship to be driven out.
  12. Dredging: This is the clearing or deepening the river or body of water.
  13. Dock: This is a platform built on the shore [wharf].
  14. Coast: This is the land along the sea.
  15. Crew: A group of people who works or operates on a ship.
  16. Captain: This is the commander of a ship.
  17. Offshore: In or on the sea, not far from the coast. The opposite of this is ‘on-shore’
  18. Flag: This is the flag a country mounted on a ship with which it sails.
  19. Anchor: This is something, usually a heavy piece of metal with points which dig into the sea-bed, used to hold a boat or a ship.
  1. Coach: A passenger railway train.
  2. Freight: Goods or cargo.
  3. Locomotive: Engine that goes from place to place using its own power, especially used to pull railway trains.
  4. Railway yard: A place where trains are parked or maintained.
  5. Commuter trains: These carry passengers between large cities and the surrounding suburbs.
  6. Freight service: This is a service which involves the transportation of goods from one place to another.
  7. Rail tracks: These are tracks on which a train moves.


Form ten sentences using words that are related to the aviation industry.

AG2 NOUN CLAUSES by Augusto Casablanca
  • Structure: noun clause

A noun clause is a subordinate clause that performs the functions of a noun

  • As a subject of a sentence:


  1. What he said  is bitter
  2. That he was insulted pained him a great deal.
  • As the object of a verb:
  1. The cook gave us what we should eat.
  2. He told us that he would come.
  • As the complement of the subject:
  1. Honesty is what we need.
  2. The important thing is  that he has arrived
  • As the complement  of a preposition:
  1. We call him what he likes.
  • As object complement:
  1. The prize will go to whoever wins.


Write five sentences containing noun clauses. Write the grammatical functions of each noun clause.

Consonant Sounds: Introduction to the Phonemic Chart - English ...

  • Introduction to consonant sounds

The 24 consonant sounds:

The consonants are sounds realized when the air that comes from the lungs is obstructed.

The 24 consonant sounds

  1. Voiced bilabial Nasal stop /m/ as in many, summer, bomb, damn
  2. Voiceless bilabial plosive/p/ the upper and lower lips are pressed together. As in picture, apple, tripper
  3. Voiced bilabial plosive /b/ as in baby, robber, baboon
  4. Voiceless labio-dental fricative /f/ as in firm, rough, physics
  5. Voiced labio-dental fricative/v/ as in vigour, Stephen, of, Volkswagen
  6. Voiceless dental fricative/ θ / as in “th” – thank, author, path,
  7. Voiced dental fricative /ð/ – The sound is made the same way the sound / θ / is produced “th” – than, that, gather.
  8. Voiced alveolar nasal stop/n/ as in new, banner, pneumonia, known, gnash
  9. Voiceless alveolar plosive /k/ as in “t”- two, attack, Thomas smashed, missed
  10. Voiced alveolar plosive /d/ as in Standard, breed, sudden
  11. Voiceless alveolar fricative /s/ as in Saturday, miss, grass, rice, axe science
  12. Voiced alveolar fricative /z/ as in zero, dizzy, please, scissors examples
  13. Voiced alveolar lateral /l/ as in lip, hello
  14. Voiceless postalveolar fricative /ʃas in sure, schedule, shabby, mission, machine, precious, nation
  15. Voiced alveolar /r/ as in rain, carrot, write, wrinkle, rhetoric
  16. Voiced postalveolar fricative /Ӡ/ as in measure, treasure, pleasure, confusion, beige, Jean
  17. Voiceless post alveolar affricative/tʃ/ as in cello, change, question, pasture
  18. Voiced postalveolar affricative /dӠ/ is a voiced sound as in jug, George, ginger, gym, educate
  19. Voiceless palatal Approximant /j/ as in yam, hallelujah, unity, Europe
  20. Voiced velar nasal stop // as in sing, bank, anchor, include, anxious
  21. Voiceless velar plosive /k/ as in cat, crack, chemical king, queue, account
  22. Voiced velar plosive /g/ as in goat, haggle, ghost
  23. Voiced labio velar /w/ as in wear, where, whistle
  24. Voiceless, Glottal Fricative /h/ as in hope, whole, Llanfair


Write 10 consonants sounds and give two examples for each

Writing narrative

  • Writing narrative

A narrative essay is the one that requires you to relate an event or incident as an eye-witness would. It requires imagination

Study the following short passage:

It was pitch-dark outside the bedroom. It must have been that the security light was not switched on before we went to bed. There was some movement outside one of the windows. I listened. As I got up from bed to check at the windows, a flash of light through the window dazzled my eyes. I shouted “thief” and the next thing I heard was a gunshot.


The writer is here trying to paint a picture in words. It is only by your own imagination that this picture can be made more beautiful.


Write a narrative essay that ends with “It pays to be hardworking”

Reading assignment

Page 5-6 of Countdown by Evans


General evaluation

From the words lettered A to D, choose the word that has the same consonant sound as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined.

  1. was        a.  girls   b. raise  c. rice      d. sing
  2. Insure     a. pleasure   b. cheap      c. vision  d. ocean
  3. Mixed      a .pumped  b. thronged   c. climbed  d. sponged
  4. Gear         a. gesture    b .near  c. fair  d. neighbour
  1. Drink       a. strength  b. dent  c. snag  d. enough


In our next class, we will be talking about Comprehension/ Reading Skills. More on Consonant Sounds Structure: Adjectival Phrase. Argumentative- “Patriotism Enhances the Growth of a Nation”.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

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