Welcome to class!
In today’s class, we will be talking about farm structures and buildings. We will also be talking about the factors considered when selecting a farm site. Enjoy the class!
FARM STRUCTURES AND BUILDINGS
A Farm building is any of the structures used in farming operations, which may include buildings to house families and workers, as well as livestock, machinery, and crops.
Factors considered when site selecting.
(i) Topography: If the land is too sloppy, there are high chances of landslide occurrence; and if it is too flat, there is a likelihood of poor drainage that leads to flooding. A relatively flat free drained area is most suitable.
ii) Prevailing winds and rainfall: Windbreaks are put perpendicular to the direction of the wind to reduce wind velocity. Strong winds can destroy buildings. Site the farm buildings facing away from the direction of the wind, and away from the direction of prevailing rains in order to minimize chances of water entering the buildings
iii) Soil type: Soil characteristics and strength determine its ability to withstand stress exerted by a building. Erect structures on firm, well-drained soils.
(iv) Nearness to utility sources such as electrical power lines, telephone lines and piped water: This allows cheaper access to essential services.
(v) Sewage disposal: The design must be in such a way that the lengths are in straight lines for ease of cleaning when blocked. The system should be accessible to a disposal vehicle.
(vi) Security: The area chosen must be secure against theft, vermin intrusion, fire or trespassers.
(vii)Accessibility to roads: The farm structures and buildings should be located near the public road. This facilitates fast access of farm produce to the market.
Parts of a farm building
Most farm buildings comprise of the following parts:
It is made on the firm sub-soil.
They are laid to a depth of about I-2m depending on the soil type e.g. in clay soils, deep foundations are laid, while in sandy soils shallow foundations are made.
How foundations are laid
Farm building foundations are laid on a firm soil layer (i.e. sub-soil) since topsoil has poor bearing capacity. Therefore, it is recommended to dig down to a layer of firm soil. Trench work is done on-site after marking out the foundation outline.
Set out and check the diagonals for accuracy, excavate the trench of at least 400 mm wide to allow someone to work in it. The sides of the trench are trimmed to get a straight, vertical and fair finished face of the sides.
They are vertical loaded parts of a building.
These can be made of stones, bricks, timber, blocks.
They should withstand side pressure from wind etc.
The wall should be strong to carry the load of the roof and their own weight.
The type of materials used to construct the wall is determined by the following factors:
(i) Availability of the materials.
(ii) The use of the building.
(iii) Weather conditions of the place.
(iv) Strength of the soil in the area.
(v) Cost of the materials.
(vi) Level of technology to be used.
It protects the house from rain, sun, wind and cold.
It provides protection to the animals or stored crops from damage by adverse weather conditions.
Features of a good roof: must be leak-proof, able to withstand the load of the roofing material, durable, fireproof and a good insulator of heat.
Common roofing materials are: timber, steel and the roof covers are grass, galvanized sheets, asbestos, tiles, fibreglass, etc.
Roofing is done after wall construction.
Procedure for roofing:
- Positions of the post are marked.
- Supports for the joints are prepared.
- Timber joints are then fixed on the supports.
- The firming piece is fixed on the joints to provide the required fall
- Tongues or grooved boards are fixed on the joints covering the whole roof surface.
- Fascia boards are nailed at the lower and sloping edges of the roof to conceal the joints. Gutters are fixed to collect water from the roof.
Farm structures are also known as farm buildings. A farm structure is a building or facility built on a farm, especially big farms, and is used for farming operations. There are many types of farm structures used for different purposes. Some are used for the housing of farmers and their families or workers of the farm. Some can be used for crops, livestock or equipment.
Sitting refers to locating an area where a particular farm structure or building is to be constructed
3. A chicken coop or chicken house
4. A shed
7. Brooder house
In our next class, we will be talking in detail about Farm Structures. We hope you enjoyed the class?
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