To roast and to bake means to cook foods by surrounding them with hot dry air, usually in the oven. Cooking on a spit is also referred to as roasting. Roasting usually applies to meat and poultry. Baking applies to bread, pastries and cakes & cookies. Fish could also be baked.
1. Cooking uncovered is essential to roasting. Covering holds in steam, changing the process from dry to moist heat cooking.
2. Meat is usually roasted on a rack. This rack prevents the meat from simmering in its own juices and fat. It also allows hot air to circulate around the meat. A rack of roughly cut vegetables could also be used.

3. When roasting in a conventional oven, the cook should allow for uneven temperatures in the different parts of the oven by occasionally shifting the position of the product. Usually, the back of the oven is hotter as heat is lost near the door.


To broil means to cook by radiant heat from above. The terms broiling, griddling and grilling are sometimes confused. Grilling is often called broiling and griddling is called grilling. For purposes of clarity, broiling is done on a broiler, griddling on a griddle plate and grilling on a griller!
1. Broiling is a rapid high heat cooking method that is usually used only for tender meats, poultry, fish and a few vegetable items.
2. The following rules should be applied while broiling:
a. Turn the heat on full. Cooking temperature is controlled by moving the rack nearer or further from the heat source.
b. Use lower heat for larger and thicker items and for items that have to be well done. Use higher heat for thinner pieces and for pieces to be cooked rare. This is done so that the inside and the outside cook at the same time.
c. Preheat the broiler. This helps to sear the product faster and the the hot broiler will make the desired marks on the food item.
d. Dip the food item in oil to prevent sticking and to minimize drying. But be careful as too much oil could cause a fire.
e. Turn the food over only once, to cook from both sides and to avoid overhandling.
3. A low-intensity broiler is called a salamander and is used for browning the top of the dishes and provides some melting before the service.
Grilling, Griddling and Pan-broiling are all dry heat methods of cooking that use heat from below
1. Grilling is done on an open grid over a heat source, which may be charcoal, an electric element or gas heat. Moving the food items from hotter to cooler places on the grill regulates cooking temperatures. Grilled items must be turned over once during the cooking process to ensure even cooking.
2. Griddling is done on a solid cooking surface called the griddle, with or without small quantities of fat. To prevent sticking. The temperature is adjustable and is around 350°F/177°C. this is much lower than on a grill. In addition to meats, items such as pancakes and eggs can be cooked on a griddle. Grooved griddles have a solid top with raised ridges and are designed to cook like grills and leave desirable marks on the surface of the food. Although they may appear the same as food cooked on the grill, meats cooked on the griddle do not have the charcoal-grilled flavor imparted while cooking on a grill.
3. Pan – broiling is like griddling, except it is done on frying or sauté pan or skillet instead of on a griddle surface. Fat must be poured off as it accumulates, or the process would become pan-frying.
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