Male and Female Reproductive Structures


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In today’s Biology class, We will be learning about Male and Female Reproductive structures. We hope you enjoy the class!






  • Structures and Functions of the Reproductive System (Male and Female)
  • Structure of the Gametes (Sperm and Ovum)
  • Differences Between Male and Female Reproductive Organs



Most multicellular animals and plants undergo a complex form of sexual reproduction in which especially differentiated male and female reproductive cells (gametes) unite to form a single cell, known as a zygote, which later undergoes successive divisions to form a new organism. The process takes place with the help of the system known as the reproductive system. This system can be divided into

  • male reproductive system and
  • female reproductive system.






  Testis Oval shaped, found in scrotal sacs in pairs outside the body to enjoy cooler temperature. –          production of sperms

–          production of male sex hormones (testosterone)

–          development of secondary sexual character in male



Seminiferous  tubules Found within the testis, composed of a mass of sperm-producing tubes. Site of sperm production


  Epididymis Found outside the testis as a long coiled tube. Collect and stores sperm temporary until maturity.
  Vas deferens

(sperm duct)

A narrow tube which leads from the epididymis to the seminal vesicles. Conduction of sperm from the epididymis to seminal vesicle.
  Seminal vesicle A small sac at the back of vas deferens. –          Stores sperm till ejaculation.

–          Secretes part of the seminal fluid.

NOTE; Seminal fluid contains fructose which provides energy for the sperms.

Prostate gland Connected to the urethra through many tubules Secretion of seminal fluid.
   Cowper’s gland Located very close to the prostate gland. Secretes a part of the seminal fluid which raises the acidic ph of the female reproductive medium which otherwise can kill the sperm.
    Urethra A narrow tube which passes through the penis. Aids the passage of sperm into the vagina of the female animal and also the passage of urine out of the body hence it is called the urinogenital opening.
      Penis Contains tissues which make it turgid (erect when filled) with blood Helps to introduce sperm into the vagina of the female animal and also the passage of urine.



  1. Outline five structural parts of the male reproductive system and their functions
  2. Why is the urethra urinogenital opening?




1 Ovaries Found on each side of the vertebra column (two in every woman) – Produce eggs (ova)

– produces female sex hormone (oestrogen and progesterone)

– Development of secondary sexual characters in the female.

2 Oviduct

(fallopian tube)

A long narrow tube funnel opening which receives eggs released by the ovary and it is a linkage between ovary and uterus. -Fertilization takes place in the oviduct

– Allows the passage of an egg from the ovary to the uterus


3. Uterus A muscular organ which is a cavity for development of the zygote into a baby. – Site of embryo development from implantation till birth


4. Vagina A muscular tube leading from the uterus to the outside of the body. – It receives sperms from the penis during intercourse

-Allows the passage of foetus during birth

5 Cervix A ring of muscles with a tiny opening that closes the lower end of the uterus where it joins the vagina. -Controls the opening and closing of the vagina especially during birth.
6 Vulva Refers to all external parts of the female reproductive organ – Allows the passage of the penis into the vagina during intercourse.

– permits passage of foetus during birth.

7 Clitoris A small sensitive organ which corresponds to the male penis. It is erectile and becomes stiff when stimulated due to blood inflow –          Helps to stimulate female during sexual intercourse(experience  orgasm)



  1. State five structural differences between the male reproductive system and the female reproductive system.
  2. Describe the organs in the female reproductive system.




We have come to the end of this class. We do hope you enjoyed the class?

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

In our next class, we will be learning about Sexual Reproduction. We are very much eager to meet you there.


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