Credit – Credit Sales and Deferred Payment


Welcome to SS2!

We are eager to have you join us in class!!

In today’s Commerce class, We will be discussing Credit – Credit Sales and Deferred Payment. We hope you enjoy the class!



  • Definition of Credit
  • Basis for Credit
  • Credit Sales
  • Deferred Payment

credit commerce classnotesng 


Credit is an arrangement made with a shop, bank, trader, business organization etc. that makes it possible for money, goods or services to be obtained and payment deferred to a future date/time.


  • The personal integrity of the customer
  • Level of income of the customer
  • Nature and reliability of the customer’s job or business
  • The personal financial commitment of the customer
  • Sources of credit repayment



This simply means the transfer of goods and services from a seller to a buyer without any payment being made immediately. The buyer takes possession of the goods with a promise to pay at a future date. Payment by the buyer could be made installmentally or all at once.


Advantages of Credit Sales to the Seller

  1. Increase in sales or turnover
  2. Increase in profit i.e. the seller makes more profit
  3. The seller sells at a higher price
  4. It reduces the risk of holding stock e.g. risk of fire, theft, obsolescence
  5. It quickens the disposal of perishable and timed goods.


Disadvantages of Credit Sales to the Seller

  1. The seller has more of his capital tied up in debts
  2. There is a risk of bad debts since not all the money owed by customers can be recovered
  3. Risk of inflation/devaluation in the value of money
  4. The seller incurs additional expense owing to the volume of paperwork involved in keeping records and sending reminders to slow payers
  5. The seller requires a bigger capital to be able to stay in business


Advantages of Credit Sales to the Buyer

  • The buyer enjoys the use of the goods before he has paid for them.
  • The buyer is free to dispose of the goods as he pleases (i.e. sell it) since he is the owner of the goods even though he may not have paid all the instalments due.
  • If the buyer defaults in his payment, the seller cannot repossess the goods.
  • At times, it is a solution to a necessity for people who are in short of ready cash.


Disadvantages of Credit Sales to the Buyer

  1. The buyer pays more than he would have paid in cash purchase
  2. There is the temptation for the buyer to over purchase i.e. to buy goods beyond his means
  3. The buyer has less opportunity to bargain or negotiate for better conditions of sale
  4. It reduces the scope of choice of the buyers since not all sellers sell on credit.
  5. The buyer may be given inferior or sub-standard products since he is not paying cash immediately



  1. Explain three reasons why a trader may sell his goods on credit
  2. State four advantages of credit sale to the seller


deferred payment credit commerce classnotesng


This is a type of credit arrangement whereby the buyer becomes the owner of the goods by paying an initial deposit with a promise to pay the balance instalmentally



  • Initial deposit
  • Instalment payment
  • Ownership (title to the goods) is transferred to the buyer immediately the initial deposit is paid.
  • It is an arrangement suitable for both consumables and durable goods.
  • If the buyer defaults in the payment of his instalment, the seller cannot repossess the goods, but can only sue the buyer in order to recover his remaining amounts.
  • Cash discounts may be given by the seller to encourage the buyer to pay promptly.
  • The seller may or may not charge interest on the balance remaining unpaid by the buyer after the initial deposit is made.
  • The goods are regarded as having been sold immediately the buyer pays the initial deposit. Therefore, the buyer can dispose of the goods as he likes i.e. he can sell it or pledge it as security for a bank loan.


N.B.  Advantages/Disadvantages of Deferred Payment to Sellers and Buyers are the same as for Credit Sales



  1. State four features of deferred payment
  2. List four disadvantages of deferred payment to the buyer.



  • State five reasons why a trader may be reluctant to sell goods on credit to his customers
  • List five differences between a credit sale and deferred payment
  • State five ways in which a bonded warehouse may be useful in international trade
  • State and explain the importance of any five ancillary services to trade
  • Describe five measures each which a government may take to (a) restrict imports   (b) promote exports



Essential Commerce for SSS by O.A. Longe Page 120 – 127



  1. What is credit?

State three advantages of credit sales to the buyer


We have come to the end of this class. We do hope you enjoyed the class?

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

In our next class, we will be talking about Credit II as we look into Hire Purchase, Leases, Mortgages and Others. We are very much eager to meet you there.

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