Industrial Combinations


Welcome to Class !!

We are eager to have you join us !!

In today’s Commerce class, We will be learning about Industrial Combination. We hope you enjoy the class!


public enteripes commerce classnotesng



  1. Definition
  2. Reasons for industrial combinations
  3. Forms of industrial combinations



Industrial combination (or integration) is the coming together of two or more firms in order to form one large economically stable firm.



  1. Firms may integrate in order to fight an economic recession
  2. The desire to reap the advantage of a monopoly
  3. To obtain stable prices.
  4. To obtain raw materials from direct sources.
  5. To reduce the cost of production and increase profits
  6. To meet statutory capital requirements necessary for operations e.g. banks
  7. In order to achieve a large scale of production.


  1. Vertical Combination: This refers to the joining together of firms which are engaged in different stages of production/distribution.

Where the manufacturer secures control of the firm supplying him with raw materials the integration is said to be backward integration. On the other hand, where the manufacture takes control of the demand for his product by taking over a firm that sells his products, the integration is a forward integration.

  1. Horizontal Combination: This refers to the combination of firms at the same stage of the production process.
  2. Lateral Combination: This is the fusion of firms in different lines of business.




A. Cartel (Kartel):- This is a voluntary association of firms engaged in the production and sale of the same product. The firms coming together retains their individual identity and independence e.g. OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries).


      1. To control prices i.e. to keep up the prices of their products
      2. Control output through the use of production quotas
      3. To eliminate competition thereby reducing wastes
      4. To maximize profit for members
      5. To serve as a Political/Economic bloc capable of influencing world/economic affairs
      6. To maximize the productive efficiency of members
      7. To stabilize the market and the industry.


B. Trust: This is a large amalgamation of different competing firms in different lines of business under single control. In Trust, the merging firms will retain their identities but the trustee will take over the management and control i.e. the amalgamated firms are brought under central control. A certificate will be issued to all members by the trustee.


Trust Cartel
1. Members will lose their independence Members will still maintain their independence.
2. Trust is a complete merger It is voluntary and members can withdraw
3. It has a vertical or lateral structure It is horizontal in structure
4. Certificates are issued No certificate is issued
5. There is no quota  system There are production quotas



    1. To bring the merging firms under central control.
    2. To eliminate unhealthy competition.
    3. To bring about increased and efficient production.
    4. To reduce cost and eliminate waste.
    5. To maximize profit.


C. Consortiums: These are teams of independent firms who combine resources together to execute a project which is either too large or too complex for an individual firm to handle. When the project is fully executed. The profit/loss is shared and the consortium is dissolved.


D. Price Rings: These are formed when completing firms producing similar products come together and agree to fix uniform prices for their products. They usually set minimum prices below which no member may sell.


E. Holding Company: These are firms that have brought controlling interest (equity shares) of 51% or more in other firms known as their subsidiaries. They are purely investment organizations.


F. Amalgamation/Merger: This refers to the fusion (joining together) of two or more previously independent firms to form one new firm with the old firms completely losing their former individual identities. The new firm usually takes a new name.


merger commerce classnotesng


  1. To raise large capital.
  2. To control a larger share of the total market for a product.
  3. To encourage research and development.
  4. To enjoy the advantages of large scale production e.g. lower cost of production/managerial economies of scale.
  5. It lowers the cost of production.
  6. It discourages unhealthy competition and eliminates wastes.
  7. To diversify the activities of the firm into other areas.
  8. To mobilize a pool of specialized managerial skill drawn from the previously independent firms.
  9. It prevents overproduction.
  10. It saves the cost of advertisements.
  11. It leads to control of outputs and stabilize prices.
  12. To increase the efficiency of management where the acquired company is poorly managed.
  13. Centralized management.


  1. It leads to monopoly.
  2. It does not encourage specialization.
  3. It denies consumers their right to make a choice.
  4. Absence of competition may reduce the quality of products.
  5. It can lead to unemployment as some employees can be laid off.
  6. It may force some other firms out of business.
  7. Greater difficulty in managing a large firm will lead to a decline in efficiency.
  8. The exploitation of consumers by monopolies.
  9. The danger of overcapitalization.



  1. State five differences between cartel and trust.
  2. Explain three reasons why some businesses merge.
  3. What is a cartel?
  4. State three reasons for the existence of a cartel.


  • Explain five factors affecting the choice of transportation of frozen products
  • State five disadvantages of air transport
  • State seven features of a public corporation
  • List and explain six new trends in retailing
  • State five features of a mail-order business



  1. What is a business merger?
  2. Give three disadvantages of business merger


  1. Essential Commerce for SSS by O. A. Longe Page 180 – 184
  2. Comprehensive commerce for SSS by J. U. Anyaele Page 331 – 336.




We have come to the end of this class. We do hope you enjoyed the class?

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

In our next class, we will be learning about Insurance. We are very much eager to meet you there.


Get more class notes, videos, homework help, exam practice on Android [DOWNLOAD]

Get more class notes, videos, homework help, exam practice on iPhone [DOWNLOAD]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Don`t copy text!