Data and Information


Welcome to class! 

In today’s class, we will be talking about data and information. Enjoy the class!

Data and Information

Data and Information

Data is raw, unorganized facts that need to be processed. It can be something simple and seemingly random and useless until it is organized. When data is processed, organized, structured or presented in a given context to make it useful, it is called information.

Sources of data

  • Primary data collection:

Primary data sources include information collected and processed directly by the researcher, such as observations, surveys, interviews, and focus groups.

  • Secondary data collection:

Secondary data sources include information retrieved through pre-existing sources, research articles, Internet or library searches, etc. Pre-existing data may also include records and data already within the program: publications and training materials, financial records, student/client data, performance reviews of the staff, etc.

Sources of information

  • Primary information:

A primary source of information is one that provides data from a source document.  This may be as simple as an invoice sent to a business or a cheque received.  It may be more complex, such as a set of sales figures for a range of goods for a tinned food manufacturer for one week, or it may be a set of sales figures over several weeks and several locations.

There are many examples of primary sources in many walks of life, but generally, a primary source is defined as being where a piece of information appears for the first time.

  •  Secondary information:

A secondary source of information is one that provides information from a source other than the original. Secondary sources are processed primary sources, second-hand versions.  Examples of secondary sources could be an accounts book detailing invoices received, a bank statement that shows details of cheques paid in and out.

Where statistical information is gathered, such as in surveys or polls, the survey data or polling data is the primary source and the conclusions reached from the survey or the results of the poll are secondary sources.

The main examples of data are weights, prices, costs, numbers of items sold, employee names, product names, addresses, tax codes, registration marks etc. Images, sounds, multimedia and animated data as shown. InformationInformation is data that has been converted into a more useful or intelligible form.

The seven characteristics that define data quality
  1. Accuracy and Precision.
  2. Legitimacy and Validity.
  3. Reliability and Consistency.
  4. Timeliness and Relevance.
  5. Completeness and Comprehensiveness.
  6. Availability and Accessibility.
  7. Granularity and Uniqueness.


In our next class, we will be talking about Information Transmission.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

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