The System Unit  


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The System Unit: Internal and External Features, Uses

The System Unit

The system unit is the part that holds the devices together. It comprises the central processing unit (CPU) which is subdivided into the control unit, arithmetic and logic unit and memory unit.

The system unit is the major part of a computer system. It consists of a system case, power supply, system board or motherboard, drives, memory card and the processor.

Functions of the system unit

  1. The control unit:

This is the unit that controls and coordinates the whole operations of the system. It monitors the transfer of data and information between the different units i.e. input devices, memory, arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) and output devices.

The System Unit

Functions of Control Unit
  • Regulation of the operation of the entries into the computer system.
  • It sequentially stores information.
  • The control unit Decodes information.
  • It helps in interpreting each instruction for prompt execution.
  • Scheduling activities.
  • It regulates the amount of time taken by each activity.
  1. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU):

The ALU has two main duties; it carries out all the required arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Furthermore, it also performs some logical operations like comparing two numbers to know which is smaller or larger.

  1. Memory Unit:

The memory unit can be referred to as the main memory. It is the internal/primary memory of the computer and it is divided into Read-Only Memory (ROM), Random Access Memory(RAM).

The other memory is the Auxiliary memory or secondary memory or storage which stores information temporarily or permanently because the information here can be easily transferred into the main memory when needed through the magnetic tape, floppy disk, CD, flash disk, diskette, etc.


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