Family Health II


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In today’s class, we will be talking more about family health. Enjoy the class!

Family Health II

Family Health


Nutrition is the science of studying the element present in the food and their function in the body. It explains what the food contains and the process of using food substances by the body for repairs, growth, regulation, and maintenance of body temperature and prevention of disease. Nutrition is also the act of obtaining food by living things. It is one of the characteristics of living things.


Food is any substance that is taken to nourish the body and to meet physiological needs for growth, energy and to maintain all processes.

 Types of foods
  • Bodybuilding food: This food builds up worn out tissues in the body. They also repair and heal damaged cells and tissues. An example is a protein.
  • Energy-giving food: These are food when eaten release energy to the body cells for our daily activities. Examples are carbohydrate, fats and oils.
  • Protective food: Protective food serves as soldiers in the body. They prevent the body from diseases and ensure the proper functioning of the body. Examples are mineral salts and vitamins.
Classes of food
  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Protein
  3. Fats and oil
  4. Mineral salt
  5. Vitamins
  6. Water
  7. Roughage
  • Carbohydrates:

Carbohydrates are energy-giving food. They contain the element of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and produce the energy we need. Sources of carbohydrate food are rice, cassava, millet, guinea corn, garri, bread, yam, etc.

Importance of carbohydrates in the body

  1. They help in the complete breakdown of fats and oils.
  2. They add bulk to the faeces.
  3. Carbohydrates provide energy.
  4. They spare protein i.e. when there is enough carbohydrate in the body, the protein will be for better utilization in the body.

Lack of carbohydrate makes the body weak and get tired. Too much of carbohydrate leads to diabetes and obesity. Carbohydrate should be taken in moderately every day for energy.

  • Protein:

Protein is a major food nutrient needed in large quantity in the body. It consists of these elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. There are two (2) types of protein: Animal protein and Plant protein.

Animal proteins are also called first-class protein or complete protein because it contains all the essential amino acids. Animal protein is mainly from an animal source e.g. milk, egg, fish, snails, cheese, etc.

Plant protein is also called second class protein because they do not contain all the essential amino acids. Plant protein is mainly from plant source e.g. beans, groundnut, soya, melon, walnut, etc.

Importance of protein

  1. Helps in growth of body cells
  2. They repair worn 0ut tissues
  3. They also provide energy in the body

Lack of protein in the body may cause the following health problems

  1. Kwashiorkor
  2. Poor memory
  3. Stunted growth or poor growth
  • Fats and Oil:

Fats are solid food nutrient found in animals while oils are liquid nutrient found in plants. They are made up of elements of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

There are two types of fats and oils. – Saturated and Unsaturated fat. Saturated fats are gotten from animals e.g. butter, meat, pork, etc. Unsaturated fats are gotten from plants e.g. palm oil, groundnut oil, soya oil, coconut oil, olive oil, margarine.

Importance of fats and oil

  1. Fats and oils maintain body temperature.
  2. They provide energy in the body.
  3. They protect some internal organs in the body e.g. liver, kidney, etc.

Lack of fats and oils makes ones to feel cold easily. Too many fats and oils may make one too fat or even cause heart and artery problem.

  • Mineral Salts:

Mineral salts are food nutrient needed in small quantity for the proper functioning of the body. Examples of mineral salts are calcium, iodine, phosphorus, sodium, zinc, copper, iron, magnesium, etc. Each mineral salt performs a different work in the body. For example:

S/N Mineral Salts Sources Functions Deficiency
1 Calcium Milk, periwinkle,

snail, beans, cheese, etc.

For strong teeth and bones. – Weak bone.

– heartbeat

– Poor quality of teeth.

2 Iron Meat, liver, wheat

germ, green

vegetables, whole

cereals etc.

Helps in the formation of blood Anaemia (lack Of blood).
3 Iodine Seafood, green vegetables, snails, etc. For proper functioning of the thyroid gland Leads to goitre i.e. swelling of the front neck
4 Zinc Legumes, eggs,

meat, liver, etc.

– Helps in the production of insulin.

– Helps in the secondary sex characteristics

– Poor sensitivity to taste

– Poor sensitivity to odour

5 Sodium Common salt – For maintenance Of fluid and acid of the body.

– Proper functioning of the nerves

– Poor breathing of the heart

– Results in muscle disorder

Importance of mineral salts in the body

  1. Promotion of normal growth in the body.
  2. Regulation of body processes like respiration.
  • Vitamins:

Vitamins are food nutrients needed in very little quantity in the body. They are represented with alphabets such as A, B, C, D, E, K, etc.

There are two (2) groups of vitamins. They are water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins. The water-soluble vitamins can dissolve in water and are destroyed during cooking e.g. vitamin B and C. Fat-soluble vitamins can dissolve in fat and are not easily destroyed in cooking e.g. vitamin A, D, E and K. Each vitamin performs different functions,

Vitamin Sources Functions Deficiency
A Red palm oil, carrot, milk, egg, liver, etc.
  • For healthy eyes.
  • Enhance growth.
  • Rough skin.
  • Poor vision.
  • Poor resistance to infection.
B Unpolished rice, beans, liver, eggs, wheat, etc.
  • For healthy skin.
  • Help in the growth of the body
  • A wound on the throat and mouth.
  • Body weakness.
  • Beriberi.
C Orange, lime, lemon, tomatoes, grape, etc.
  • Promote resistance to disease.
  • Quick healing of wounds.
  • Bleeding gum.
  • Scurvy development.
D Cod liver oil, morning sunshine, fish, palm oil, etc.
  • For strong teeth.
  • For strong bones
  • Helps in absorption of calcium and phosphate
  • Weak bones.
  • Pricket in children.
E Legumes, beans, wheat, liver, nut, etc.
  • Increased fertility in human.
  • Helps in cell formation.
  • Poor development of the reproductive organs.
K Liver, egg, green,

vegetable etc.

  • For blood clotting.
  • Prevents excessive bleeding
  • Excessive bleeding e.g. Hemorrhage bleeding

Importance of vitamins

  1. They protect the body from illness.
  2. They help in body metabolism.

Note: The main function of the vitamin is to protect the body against disease and infections.

  • Water:

Water is very important to life. It is colourless, odourless and tasteless. Water makes up two-thirds of body weight. We lose water from the through sweating, urinating and breathing. Water contains two elements: hydrogen and oxygen. Sources of water are drinking water, fruits and some vegetable beverages, beer, etc.

Importance of water in the body

  1. It helps to regulate body temperature.
  2. It helps in the digestion of food.
  3. Water helps to transport food nutrient round the body.
  4. It also removes unwanted substances from the body.
  • Roughage:

Another name for roughage is called fibres. Sources of roughages are whole grains, yam, beans and vegetables.

Importance of roughage

  1. It prevents constipation.
  2. It helps in free movement of bowel.
Importance of food
  • Food quickens recovery after illness.
  • Food improves our healthy living.
  • It provides growth and development of the body.
  • Food eliminates hunger and gives satisfaction.
  • It provides energy for various physical activities.
  • Food the body from infection e.g. vitamins

Balance diet

Balance diet provides important minerals, vitamin, and nutrient that the body need to keep itself and the mind strong. Eating a balanced diet keeps us from disease, also maintain healthy body weight, improve brain function, provides energy and allow better sleep.

That is the end of today’s class and I hope we all enjoy the class if you have any question ask using the comment box below.


In our next class, we will be talking more about Family Health.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

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