It takes time to heat food to the desire’s temperature, the temperature at which food is done (meaning the desired changes have taken place). This time is affected by three factors.


1. Cooking temperatureThis means the temperature of the air in the oven, the surface of the griddle, or the liquid in which the food is cooking.


2. The Speed of Heat TransferDifferent cooking methods transfer heat at different rates. Frying and sautéing are faster than roasting.


3. Size, Temperature and Individual Characteristics of the FoodFor example – A small piece of meat cooks faster than a large one. A chilled piece of fish takes longer to broil than one at room temperature. Seafood cooks faster than lamb and chicken.


Because there are so many variables, it is impossible to determine the cooking time in a recipe. The chef must use his or her judgment to make the final evaluation of the doneness of the food.

The aim or the intention of cooking is to see that the food cooked undergoes a physical change, sometimes a chemical change and is acceptable.


The objective of cooking is to achieve certain results such as:


1) To facilitate and fasten digestion, so that the cooked food is absorbed by the digestive system and subsequently assimilated by the body.


2) A physical change occurs when a substance changes its form, color or size, but still remains that same substance, like water that changes to ice.


3) A chemical change occurs when a substance changes its form, color or size, combining so as to form an entirely new body, e.g. milk changes to curd.


4) Cooking partly sterilize food above 40*c, so that growth of bacteria falls off rapidly and boiling kills the living cells.


5) Cooking makes food more attractive to have eye appearance and variety.


6) Cooking increases taste and palatability.


7) Cooking helps to make food more digestible.


8) With one ingredient many dishes can be prepared.


9) Use of right cooking method so that there is minimum loss of color, texture and nutrition.


10) Use of various ingredients to provide a balance diet.



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