Animal Nutrition II


Welcome to Class !!

We are eager to have you join us !!

In today’s Agricultural Science class, We will continue learning about Animal Nutrition from last class. We hope you enjoy the class!


animal nutrition agric classnotesn



  1. VITAMINS: are organic substances also required by animals for proper growth and body development. The types are;
      • Fat-Soluble Vitamins: These are vitamins which are soluble in fat e.g. A, D, E and K
      • Water-Soluble Vitamins C and B-Complex. Examples of vitamin B-Complex are; cobalamine, pantothenic acid and folic acid.


Vitamin A (retinol) Fish meal, grasses, yellow maize Proper eyesight (or vision), Epithetical cell formation, Aid reproduction. Night blindness
Vitamin C (Ascorbic) acid Grasses, vegetables and fruits. Formation of connective tissues, bone and dentine Scurvy
Vitamin D (Calciferol) Bone meal, fish meal and sunlight Aids bone and teeth formation, eggshell formation Ricket, Osteomalacia, soft shell egg.
Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Vegetables, grasses, synthetic vitamin E Aids reproduction.

As an antioxidant.

A reproductive failure like sterility and premature
Vitamin K (phylloquinone) Fish meal,  vegetables Aids blood clotting. Prothrombin Haemorrhages i.e. inability of the blood to clot in time.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Yeast, cereals, green plants Co-enzyme in energy metabolism Poor appetite, Beri-beri
Vitamin  B2 (Riboflavin) Green herbage and milk products Co-enzyme in protein and fat metabolism Slow growth, Dermatitis
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Fish meal, milk products As co-enzyme in several biochemical reactions.

Red blood cell formation

Pernicious anaemia.
Vitamin B3 Niacin

(Nicotinic acid)

Yeast, cereals, grasses Carbohydrate oxidation Pellagra


  1. WATER

Sources of water; tap, feed, rain, rivers, pond and fresh fodder.


  1. Water is provided for drinking purposes
  2. It is used for metabolic and digestion of food
  3. For dipping/drenching animal against ectoparasites
  4. For washing or cleaning of animals
  5. For sanitation, cleaning of floor and pens
  6. For processing animal products
  7. For maintenance of body temperature
  8. For irrigation of pasture
  9. It helps to get rid of waste products in the body
  10. Helps to maintain body turgidity



  1. Helps to fight against pathogen
  2. Helps to heal sore and wounds in animals
  3. They increase the absorption of nutrient from the digestive tract



  1. State five functions of proteins.
  2. What is a macronutrient?



Diet: is defined as the feed formulated to meet the specific needs of an animal. It is also referred to as the amount of feed regularly given to or consumed by an animal. It is formulated to meet specific metabolic or physiological functions such as growth, location, maintenance of pregnancy, reproduction or egg-laying.


Ration: is the total supply of food given to animals in a twenty-four hour period.

Balanced Ration: A balanced ration is a feed containing all essential nutrients in the correct quantity and in adequate proportions for feeding animals.

Types of balanced ration

  1. Maintenance Ration: This is given to farm animals just to maintain the normal functioning of the body system.
  2. Production Ration: This is the type of ration given to farm animals to enable them to produce.


Factor to be considered when deciding the type of Ration to feed an Animal

  1. The purpose for which the animal is kept
  2. Age of the animal
  3. Animal’s condition of health
  4. Management System
  5. Physiological state of the animal


Categories of farm animals that require production ration are;

  1. Lactating animals
  2. Weaned animals
  3. Pregnant animals
  4. Fattening animals
  5. Broiler
  6. Layers
  7. Steaming up or flushing



  1. What is a balanced ration?
  2. Distinguished between production and maintenance ration
  3. State five functions of vitamins
  4. State five functions of water



  • Essential Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary School by O.A. Iwena Chapter 33, pages 329-338
  • Answer the following questions from WAEC PAQ 1995 theory question 7, 2012 theory question 8 and 2014 theory question 4



  1. What is a nutrient?
  2. List five characteristics of roughages.
  3. Define (i) Diet (i) nutrition (iii) production ration
  4. State five functions of proteins.




We have come to the end of this class. We do hope you enjoyed the class?

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

We have come to the end of this term and hence SS2. It’s been a remarkable journey and we are glad that you have made it this far. For making it this far, we commend you for being resilient, you have taken charge of your education and future.

The Journey still continues though, we are moving on to SS3. we hope to meet you there. 


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