Factors Affecting Agricultural Production (Crops and Animals)


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In today’s Agricultural Science class, We will be learning about Factors Affecting Agricultural Production. We hope you enjoy the class!


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These factors are grouped into three,

  1. Climatic factor
  2. Biotic factor
  3. Edaphic factor



Climate is the average weather condition of a place over a long period of time. The elements of climate are rainfall, humidity, light, temperature, drought, wind, sunlight, humidity etc.



Rainfall is defined as the release of excess condensed water vapour in the atmosphere into the earth.

  1. It determines the distribution of crops and animal.
  2. It is necessary for seed germination.
  3. Excessive rainfall leads to leaching.
  4. It helps to dissolve nutrients, making it available for the plants.
  5. It determines the types of vegetation in an area.
  6. It determines seasons in Nigeria.
  7. Insufficient rainfall causes crop failure and poor yield.



This is defined as lack of or insufficient rainfall in the area.



  1. It causes a delay in flowering and flower abortion.
  2. Poor crop establishment.
  3. It leads to a reduction in leaf area.
  4. It reduces physiological process due to protoplasm dehydration.
  5. A decrease in the production of green matter.
  6. Reduction in photosynthesis.
  7. It causes wilting.
  8. It causes the death of plant and plant failure.




This is the degree at hotness and coldness of a place.

  1. Temperature is necessary for germination of seeds.
  2. It affects the distribution of crops and animals.
  3. Too hot or too cold temperature does not favour plants and animal growth.
  4. An Unfavourable temperature may result in dormancy.
  5. High temperature affects evapotranspiration and reduces the performance of livestock.
  6. It affects the wilting of field crops, ripening and maturity of crops.
  7. It affects microbial activities in relation to mineralization.
  8. High temperature leads to loss of soil minerals by vitalization.
  9. High temperature causes abortion in farm animals.
  10. High temperature will cause heat stress and egg drop in poultry.



Wind is defined as air in motion.

  1. High wind velocity may cause wind erosion.
  2. It aids seed and fruit dispersal.
  3. It can aid pollination and spread of diseases.
  4. It helps in the distribution of rainfall and changes in seasons.
  5. High wind velocity causes damage to crops e.g. Lodging.
  6. It affects evapotranspiration.




Sunshine is the amount of heat and the period the sun’s rays are received at a place.

  1. Sunlight is necessary for photosynthesis.
  2. It affects evapotranspiration.
  3. It affects the productivity of crops due to the length of lay i.e. photoperiodism.
  4. Light affects the rising and roosting of animals.
  5. It affects the rate of production in poultry.
  6. It determines the productivity of cultivated crops.
  7. Solar radiation is a source of farm power.
  8. It assists in the drying of crops.
  9. It assists in photosynthesis in crops.
  10. High intensity causes heat stress in animals.



Relative Humidity is defined as the amount of moisture in the atmosphere.

  1. It results in the formation of rain.
  2. It affects the performance of plants and animals.
  3. It causes mouldiness of feeds and litters.
  4. Low humidity causes aridity or dryness.
  5. It determines the type of crops grown in an area.
  6. Low humidity leads to heat stress in animals, e.g. cattle, poultry, pig.
  7. It determines the type of crops grown in an area.
  8. High humidity favours the growth of pathogens.
  9. It affects feed and water intake in animals.



  1. List five climate factors affecting agricultural production.
  2. State two effects of rainfall.






  1. These include bacteria, fungi, earthworms, rodents and termites.
  2. Bacteria and fungi can cause diseases.
  3. Some aid aeration of the soil, percolation and fertility.
  4. Root nodules of bacteria can fix nutrients directly to plants and soil.
  5. Help in the decomposition of plant materials to form humus.



  1. These include insects, rodents, birds and some mammals.
  2. They reduce the yield of crops and animals.
  3. They reduce the quality of crops and animals.
  4. Some are vectors or carriers of diseases.
  5. They reduce the income of farmers.
  6. They increase the cost of production.



  1. They include tick, liver flukes, tapeworms, dodder, mistletoe and like.
  2. Some transit diseases.
  3. They reduce the quantity or yield of production.
  4. They reduce the quality of the yield.
  5. They cause the death of plants and animals.
  6. They reduce the production capacity of livestock or crops.
  7. Cost of control increases the cost of production.
  8. They reduce farmers’ income.



  1. List four biotic factors affecting agricultural production.
  2. List two effects each of soil organism pests, parasites and diseases on agricultural production.




  1. It affects the growth of plants.
  2. It also affects the availability of soil nutrients to plants.
  3. It affects the presence of soil microorganism.
  4. It causes toxicity to plants and animals in the soil.



  1. It determines the type of soil in an area.
  2. It determines the level of soil fertility.
  3. It determines the type of crop to be grown.
  4. It affects the level of leaching and erosion.



  1. It determines the fertility of the soil.
  2. It determines the water holding capacity of the soil.
  3. It determines the level of soil organism.
  4. It determines the level of soil aeration and percolation.



This is the shape of the land in relation to the underlying rocks of the earth surface.

  1. A Steep gentle slope gives rise to soil erosion.
  2. A Steep gentle slope may also aid the weathering of rocks.
  3. Even or flat slope can lead to accumulation of soil.
  4. Even and flat slopes can be better sites for intensive farming.



  1. Fertile soils aid the production of food and cash crops.
  2. Fertile soil produces better forage crops.
  3. It minimizes the use of fertilizer.
  4. It leads to a multiplication of beneficially soil organism.
  5. Fertile soil leads to a reduction in the cost of production.



  1. The types include sandy, clay and loamy soil.
  2. Loamy soil is the best for agriculture.
  3. Sandy soil does not contain enough nutrients, hence it cannot support plant growth.
  4. Sandy soil encourages leaching.
  5. Clayed soil prevents leaching but encourages waterlogging.



  1. List five edaphic factors affecting agricultural production.
  2. List five biotic factors affecting agricultural production.
  3. List three effect of solar radiation on agricultural production.
  4. State five problems associated with irrigation.
  5. State five effects of temperature on agricultural production.



Essential Agricultural Science for Senior Secondary Schools, Chapter 9, pages 48 – 59


  1. Discuss four biotic factors affecting agricultural production
  2. State two effects each of soil PH, soil texture and rainfall on Agricultural production



We have come to the end of this class. We do hope you enjoyed the class?

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

In our next class, we will be learning about Plant Nutrient and Nutrient Cycle. We are very much eager to meet you there.


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