Welcome to class!
In today’s class, we will be talking about consonant, sentence and vocabulary development. Enjoy the class!
Consonant, Sentence and Vocabulary Development
There are 24 consonant sounds in English Language. When they are pronounced, there is always some obstruction of the air from the lungs. This is because we bring two speech organs together in order to produce the sounds. These are the consonant sounds we have:
/b/ bee, Bible, bubble
/p/ apple, piper, pepper
/g/ guest, hugging, English
/k/ chemical, hawker, quick
/d/ add, bribed, daddy
/t/ teach, tracked, matched
/v/ view, of, nephew
/f/ off, cough, philosophy
/z/ freeze, boys, present
/s/ cell, traps, science
/ð/ though, clothe, heathen
/θ/ thought, mouth, worthless
/ʒ/ treasure, decision, usual
/∫/ sheep, ocean, luxury
/dʒ/ jeep, giant, urgent
/t∫/ cheap, teacher, mixture
/h/ hedge, behind, alcohol
/m/ man, mummy, remember
/n/ knee, non, honour
/η/ thing, hanging, language
/l/ look, call, silver
/r/ rhino, scream, library
/ј/ you, value, union
/w/ when, queen, language
Master the sounds by reading them to yourself repeatedly. Also, check your dictionary for 5 examples for each sound mentioned above.
We join words or clauses together to form sentences. It could be two or more. The different ways we join these items together are what give us the different types of sentences we have.
Sentence is a broad topic in the English Language. If you are able to grasp it correctly, and its different types, you will have polished your written English.
We often talk about two broad categories of sentences, the functional and the structural types.
The functional types of sentence refer to the meaning we are trying to achieve with a sentence. They include a statement, question, command, negation, exclamation.
We use statements primarily to convey information. ‘I am going to the village.’ ‘Water is scarce.’ ‘The sun rises in the east.’ We end sentences with a period.
Questions are also called interrogative sentences. We use them to interrogate or ask questions as the names imply. ‘Where are you coming from?’ ‘How are you?’ ‘When should I expect you?’ We end interrogative sentences with question marks.
We use Commands to instruct someone to do (or not to do) something. ‘Shut the door.’ ‘Do not shut the door.’ ‘Listen to me.’ Commands are grammatically known as imperative sentences.
Clearly, any sentence can be converted to negation by the introduction of ‘not’, ‘never’ or other negative markers such as hardly, rarely, scarcely and seldom. ‘I will never let you go.’ ‘He hardly listens to his mum’s instructions.’ ‘Hannah rarely treks to school.’
Exclamations are sentences we use for expressing our feelings. ‘What an exciting day we’ve had!’ ‘How happy we all felt!’ ‘How beautifully the children sang!’ Notice the use of the exclamation mark after each sentence.
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT: WORDS ASSOCIATED WITH LAW
All the English words that you know and can make use of when you write or speak is called your vocabulary. In every vocabulary development class, you are expected to learn new words in order to add to your vocabulary.
Today, we will be considering the language of law. See if you can define the words below. Any word you can define and you know how to use it correctly in English is already part of your dictionary. But I will try to give you words you probably have not met before.
Do you know their meanings?
The meanings are listed below, but not with the word they represent. Use your dictionary to discover which word goes with which meaning.
- One who makes a complaint to a superior court to review the decision of a lower court.
- A certificate of obligation, either unsecured or secured with collateral, to pay a specified amount of money within a specified period of time.
- An intentional and voluntary surrender of some known right, which generally may either result from an express agreement or is inferred from circumstances.
- A person who swears on oath that a statement is correct.
- A false name.
- A claim that a person was elsewhere when a crime was committed
- Charging more interest than is permitted by law for a loan of money.
- Larceny: The feloniously taking and carrying away of the personal property of another
- An impartial person chosen by the parties to solve a dispute between the
- Court-ordered payment of support of one’s estranged spouse in the case of divorce or separation.
- Write a paragraph story on any topic of your choice and underline all the types of sentences you learned this week therein.
- Use your dictionary to find 20 vocabularies of law that were not mentioned in this lesson.
In our next class, we will be talking about Nominalization and Skill Focus (Paraphrasing a Poem). We hope you enjoyed the class.
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