Welcome to class! 

In today’s class, we will be talking about elections. Enjoy the class!


elections classnotes.ng

An election is a process of choosing someone through voting into a particular political office. It is the act of choosing a leader to represent the people through popular vote. Elections occur at different periods, especially for political offices. For example in Nigeria, elections into various government offices and positions occur every 4 years. These government positions and offices include:

Presidency, governorship, members of the house of assembly (the law-making organ), the chairman and councillors.

Voting process

elections classnotes.ng

Voting is the activity of choosing someone in an election. This is when people gather together to choose among various candidates into a government office. To vote, therefore, is to choose one’s preferred candidate among others.

Voting is in two forms (methods):

  • Secret Balloting: This is when voters (people) choose their preferred candidate secretly without any one’s interference.
  • Public voting: This is when voters (people) choose their preferred I candidate openly.

The secret balloting is done in Nigeria and some other countries practising democracy.


A voter is a person who is qualified to choose a candidate of choice in an election. For anyone to become a voter, he/she must have the legal right to vote at an election. Another name for the voter is the electorate.

In Nigeria, for anyone to be qualified as a voter, he/she must be 18 years and above and mentally stable.

Types of election
  • Direct Election.
  • Indirect Election.
  • By-Election.
  • Primary Election.
  • Run-off Election.
  • Referendums

I will explain it for more explanation for more understanding.


This is a type of election in which candidates who want to hold political offices are voted for. The candidate with the highest number of votes wins the election. A direct election can be done through either secret balloting or public voting.


This is a process in which voters do not choose among candidates but will elicit people (Electoral College) who will make decisions on their behalf. It is one of the oldest types of election and mostly practised in the legislative arm of government.


By-elections are done to fill a political office that has become vacant. This election occurs when the initial holder has resigned, is dead, or being disqualified. It can also occur in a particular constituency where there has been voting irregularities.


The primary election is an election done within a political party that helps to reduce the number of candidates before a general election. Primary election helps political parties to nominate a candidate of their choice.


This happens when no candidate emerges winner in the first election, a second one is conducted to choose a winner.


This type of election is a direct popular vote usually done on a proposed law. It is done to know the decision about a particular law that affects the people in a country.


When a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer is needed on a matter of urgent national importance.


In our next class, we will be talking about the Importance of Election.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

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