Welcome to Class !!

We are eager to have you join us !!

In today’s Computer Science class, We will be learning about FlowCharts. We hope you enjoy the class!

Algorithm-and-Flowchart csc classnotesng

A flow chart is a pictorial or graphical representation of an algorithm given to the computer and the flow of control between various steps. A flowchart is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm, workflow or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting them with arrows. This diagrammatic representation illustrates a solution model to a given problem. Flow chart uses a number of standards and special symbols to represent different operations specified in an algorithm.

Symbols in Flow Chart

Terminal Symbol: It is used to denote the logical beginning or end of a flow chart. The terminator is used to show where your flow begins or ends. Ideally, you would use words like ‘Start’, ‘Begin’, ‘End’ inside the terminator object to make things more obvious. represented as lozenges, ovals or rounded rectangles, usually containing the word “Start” or “End”, or another phrase signalling the start or end of a process, such as “submit enquiry” or “receive product”.


Input/Output Symbol: It is used to denote inputting or reading values from memory and outputting values into any appropriate storage medium. You can use a parallelogram as a catch-all shape to represent different input-output devices, or use specialized figures resembling hard drives, printers, magnetic tape drives and display screens.

Decision Symbol: Is used to denote that a decision is to be taken between a number or an alternative by the computer. Decision object is represented as a Diamond. This object is always used in a process flow to as a question. And, the answer to the question determines the arrows coming out of the Diamond. This shape is quite unique with two arrows coming out of it. One from the bottom point corresponding to Yes or True and one from either the right/left point corresponding to No or False. The arrows should be always labelled to avoid confusion in the process flow.


 Process Symbol: The process symbol represents a process, action, or function. It’s the most widely-used symbol in flowcharting.


Process symbol

Document Symbol: Document object is a rectangle with a wave-like base. This shape is used to represent a Document or Report in a process flow. The document symbol represents the input or output of a document. Examples of input are receiving a report, email, or order. Examples of output are generating a presentation, memo, or letter.


Document symbol

Stored data Symbol: This is a general data storage object used in the process flow as opposed to data which could be also stored on a hard drive, magnetic tape, memory card, or any other storage device.


Stored data

The connector symbol connects separate elements across one page. It’s usually used within complex charts


The off-page connector (also known as the off-page link) symbol connects separate elements across multiple pages. It is frequently used within complex charts. The page number is sometimes placed on the shape for easy reference.


The comment symbol, or note symbol, adds needed explanation or comment. It may be connected by a dashed line to the relevant section of the flowchart.

Flowchart symbols classnotes.ng classnotes.ng

Other Flowchart Symbols’ Meaning Explained
  • ssss

The stored data symbol represents data housed on a storage device.

  • dddd

The summing junction symbol sums the input of several converging paths.

  • jjjj

The predefined process symbol indicates a complicated process or operation that is well-known or defined elsewhere.

  • hhhh

The internal storage symbol represents data stored in random-access memory (RAM).

  • kkkk

The manual input symbol represents the manual input of data into a computer, usually through a keyboard.

  • jjjj

The manual operation symbol indicates a step that must be done manually, not automatically.

  • jjjj

The merge symbol combines multiple paths.

  • gggg

The preparation symbol differentiates between steps that prepare for work and steps that actually do work.

General evaluation
  1. What is a flow chart?
  2. What are the symbols in a flow chart?
  3. What does the ‘Process symbol’ represent?


We have come to the end of this class. We do hope you enjoyed the class?

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

In our next class, we will be learning about Introduction to BASIC Programming. We are very much eager to meet you there.


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