Health Issues

Welcome to class.

In this lesson, we will be talking about health issues.


Sanitation means keeping our environment clean. One of the ways in which we can make sure our environment is clean is to provide toilets for people to use.

A toilet is a place where people pass waste.

Health Issues

Types of toilets

  1. Traditional Toilets

There are two kinds of traditional toilets. These are:

  • The Pit Toilet: A hole is dug in the ground for people to pass waste.
  • The Bucket Toilet: A special bucket is placed somewhere for people to pass waste. After some time, a special sanitation worker empties out the bucket. The pit toilet and the bucket toilet are built outside the house.
  1. The Modern Toilet: This is the kind of toilet which many people in the cities use now. It is usually built inside the house. It has a porcelain bowl on which the user sits. The bowl has a cover. A tank with water is attached to it. After use, the user flushes the toilet by using the handle at the tank. The waste passes through a pipe to the septic tank outside.

Keeping the toilet clean

The toilet must be clean all the time. You can keep it clean by doing the following things:

  • Wash it everyday
  • Sweep the toilet floor everyday
  • Flush it after use.
  • Cover it after use.
  • Wash it with a disinfectant such as Dettol.
  • Place an air freshener there if you can afford one.
  • Shut the toilet door.

Those who use traditional toilets must cover them and shut the doors. They must pay å sanitation official to empty the bucket toilet regularly.

Keeping our surroundings clean

Our environment must be clean all the time. Here are some ways in which you can keep your environment clean.

  • Sweep the floor everyday
  • Use the waste basket, instead of throwing refuse any where.
  • Cut the grass around the house.
  • Clean the gutters.

Materials used for cleaning the environment

  • Brooms
  • Rakes
  • Cutlasses
  • Buckets
  • Soap/detergent
  • Disinfectant
  • Water

Consequences of Living in a Dirty Environment

Here are some things which will happen to those who live in å dirty environment.

  • Mosquitoes will bite them and trouble them very much.
  • They will have malaria.
  • They will suffer from typhoid fever.
  • Flies will be around them all the time.
  • They will suffer from cholera.
  • Their homes will smell.
  • Decent people will not visit them.
  • They may die from diseases.

Consequences of Using Dirty Toilets

Here are some things which will happen to those who use dirty toilets.

  • They will have typhoid fever.
  • They will suffer from cholera.
  • They will spend a lot of money on medicine.
  • They will suffer from strange diseases and may even die.
  • Their homes will be smelly.

Personal Hygiene

Personal hygiene is the practice of keeping your body clean.

Materials Used for Personal Hygiene

  • Toothbrush
  • Toothpaste
  • Chewing stick
  • Nail clippers
  • Clippers for the hair
  • Soap
  • Sponge
  • Water
  • Hair oil
  • Comb

Some Ways in Which We can Keep Our Bodies Clean

  • We should take a bath at least two times a day.
  • We should brush our teeth in the morning and at bedtime.
  • Boys should have a haircut regularly, and girls should plait their hair regularly.
  • We must wash our hands after visiting the toilet.
  • We should not stick our fingers into our nostril.
  • We should wash our hands before and after mea
  • We must wear clean dresses and clean underwear
  • We must polish our shoes.

Why We Should Keep Our Bodies Clean

We should practice personal hygiene for the following reasons:

  • We need to keep germs away. Germs like to hide in dirty places. If we are clean, germs will have nowhere to hide on our bodies.
  • We need to avoid skin diseases, like rashes. If our bodies are clean all the time, we will not have skin diseases.
  • We need to stay healthy. Those who are dirty fall sick easily
  • We should look smart and decent Smart children
  • Practicing personal hygiene now will help us to grow up as disciplined people. Then as disciplined people, we would become good leaders.


  1. What is sanitation?
  2. Mention two kinds of toilets.
  3. Mention four ways in which we can keep the toilet clean
  4. Mention three ways in which we can keep our environment clean
  5. Mention three things we need to keep our environment clean
  6. Mention three things that will happen to those who live in dirty place
  7. What is personal hygiene?
  8. Mention four ways in which we can keep our bodies clean
  9. List five things with which we can keep our bodies clean
  10. Mention three reasons why we need to keep our bodies clean

We are done with today’s class. Don’t forget to leave your question in the comment section.

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