Public Enlightenment Campaigns

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Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)/Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI)

An infectious disease is a disease that can be passed from one person to another. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)/Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) are diseases that are spread by engaging in sexual activities.

Types of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)/Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI)

There are two types of STDs. These are:

  • Bacterial STDs: These are caused by bacteria. These are usually cured by antibiotics. Examples are gonorrhea, syphilis and chlamydia.
  • Viral STDs: These are caused by viruses. They have no cure except for Hepatitis B which can be prevented with a vaccine. The others are HIV which cannot be cured but their symptoms can be reduced with treatment.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

It is a virus that destroys parts of the white blood cells. These white blood cells is the body’s disease fighting immune system, or body soldiers. When the virus attacks the white blood cells, the body becomes weak and open to all diseases. When a person has HIV, they are said to be HIV positive. HIV causes AIDS, which means Acquired Immuno deficiency Syndrome. It is the final life-threatening stage of HIV infection. This is the stage of HIV when one is highly susceptible to infections which the natural immune system would ordinarily combat and defeat.

Sources of HIV Infections

HIV can be contacted through the following ways. These are:

  • Sexual Intercourse
  • Exchange of body piercing objects such as pins, needles, syringes, toothbrushes, etc.
  • Blood transmission
  • Mother to child transmission during child birth and through breast feeding.

Effects of STDs/HIV/AIDS on Family

The following are the effect of STDs/HIV/AIDS on Family. These are:

  • Marriage failure
  • Reduction in family income.
  • Break in family relationship.
  • Stigmatization and neglect from members of the community.

Responsible Sexual Behaviours

Sexual behaviours that can prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections are:

  • Being faithful to one sexual partner.
  • Avoid pre-marital sex.
  • Use of protective devices such as condoms.
  • Avoid pornographic pictures that can arouse the body.

Values Relevant to Responsible Sexual Behaviours

  • Discipline
  • Faithfulness
  • Honesty
  • Fear of God
  • Tolerance
  • Resistance

Drug Abuse

What is Drug Abuse?

Å drug is abused:

  • When we use it when we are not sick.
  • When we use it without permission from doctors or nurses.
  • When the law says we should not use it and we still use it. This means that any drug can be a

Ways of Preventing Drug Abuse

We can prevent drug abuse in the following ways:

  • We must not take drugs without permission from doctors and nurses. This means we should always go to the hospital when we are sick.
  • We must not take drugs on our own.
  • We must take only drugs that are given to us by doctors from the hospita
  • Adults must keep drugs in a safe place where children cannot touch them.

We must consult the following people when we are not sure of what to do about medicines:

  1. Our parents
  2. Our teachers
  3. Nurses and doctors
  4. Pharmacists

Why Must We Consult these People?

  • These people are our elders. They know what is best for us.
  • Anyone who takes drugs in the wrong way will get seriously ill.
  • Taking drugs in the wrong way may cause ma
  • We may not be able to do well in school, because some bad drugs disturb the bra
  • Taking wrong drug can even kill people.

Drug Laws

Drug laws are the rules and regulations that guide the making, selling and use of drugs (medicines). The companies that make medicines and people who sell them must obey such rules.

Importance of Drug Education

The medicines we take to treat our illnesses can be dangerous or harmful to us if we do not use them properly. So, it is important for us to learn what medicines to take and how to take them. Learning about drugs is important in the following ways:

  • It helps us to know medicines to take and how and when to take them.
  • It helps people to show concern for others. If those who sell medicines are concerned about others, they will not sell fake medicines.
  • It helps to control the making, selling and use of drugs, especially harmful drugs. This is to prevent people from harming or even killing themselves and others.

Roles of Some Institutions in Controlling the Use of Drugs

There are some organizations that help control the production, sale and use of drugs. They are:

  • NAFDAC: This is the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control. It is more concerned with the production and distribution of drugs. It makes sure that medicines being produced and sold are of high qua The officials of NAFDAC arrest those who make and sell fake drugs.
  • NDLEA: This is the National Drug Law Enforcement A The officials arrest those who sell hard drugs. Both NDLEÅ and NÅFDÅC educate people about the dangers of taking drugs that the government does not approve of.
  • The family: Our family members love us and are concerned about us. They make sure we do not break the laws by using harmful drugs. Our parents show us good examples by taking only medicines prescribed by doctors. They pay attention to our activities and make sure we do not use hard drugs.
  • The school: In the school our teachers monitor us by paying attention to our behå They also report to our parents if we are caught using drugs without our teachers’ permission, and if we fight with other pupils.


Rules and Regulations for Taking Substances into the Body


Substances are materials which can be liquid (like syrup, soft drink, and alcohol); solid (like tablets, and kolanuts); or gaseous (like smoke). People take substances for many reasons. Substances can be taken by mouth, sniffed, smoked or injected into the body.

Some of the substances we take are not always good for our health.

Some Substances

  • Medicines
  • Soft drinks
  • Kolanuts
  • Fruits and vegetables
  • Alcohol
  • Cigarettes
  • Snuff

Things You Must Not Do

  • Do not buy medicines from street vendors.
  • Do not treat yourself when you are ill.
  • Do not accept anything from strangers
  • Do not take or eat anything without permission from your parents or tea
  • Do not eat anything that is spoilt.
  • You must not eat kolanuts, smoke cigarettes, or drink a
  • Do not go out with bad friends, because they may deceive you into taking harmful substance

Things You Must Do

  • Tell your parents or teachers if you are sick.
  • Accept or take things only from people you know and trust.
  • Take only medicines that are given to you at the hospital, or by your parents or tea
  • Go to school regularly because you learn many things there.
  • Make friends with only good children.

Why You Must Obey Such Rules

  • Some of the substances are not good for your hea
  • They can make people sick.
  • They can even kill people.

We have come to the end of this lesson. if you have any question, drop your question in the comment section.


  1. What is the meaning of drug laws?
  2. Mention the importance of drug education?
  3. List the agencies that help us in drug control.
  4. What are the roles of the family in our relationship with drugs?
  5. What are the roles of the school in our relationship with drugs?
  6. Mention the ways in which we can prevent drug a
  7. Mention the people we should ask when we are not sure of drugs.
  8. Why must we ask these people when we are not sure of drugs?
  9. What are substances?
  10. Mention four things we must do with regard to taking substances into the body.
  11. Mention four things we must not do with regard to taking substances into our bodies.
  12.  What will happen to us if we take substances without following rules?
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