Posture And Postural Defects


Welcome to Class !!

We are eager to have you join us !!

In today’s Physical Health Education class, We will be discussing Postural Defects. We hope you enjoy the class!





This can be defined as the position of a person’s body when standing or sitting. It is the body’s position when sitting or standing.

There are two types of posture:

  1. Good posture
  2. Bad posture

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Good Posture:

This is the correct alignment of parts of the body supported by the right amount of muscle tension against gravity. Without posture and the muscles that control it, we would simply fall to the ground.  It helps stay in positions that place the least strain on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement and weight-bearing activities.

Factors that Influence Posture

The following are the factors that influence posture:

  1. Age
  2. Occupation
  3. Habit
  4. Environment
  5. Heredity
Characteristics of Good Posture

The features or characteristics of good posture are as follows:

  1. The head is well back
  2. The chin is in
  3. Flat abdomen
  4. Straight back
  5. Straight and relaxed knees
  6. The feet are slightly apart
  7. Balanced weight on both feet
  8. The toes are pointed straight ahead
  9. The chest is lifted forward and backwards
  10. The buttocks are tucked under slightly
Importance of Good Posture

The following are the importance of good posture:

  1. Good appearance
  2. Efficient movement
  3. Good posture prevents undue fatigue
  4. Good posture ensures self confidence
  5. It helps the vital organs to be kept in the best functioning position
  6. Good posture enhances mental alertness
Kinds of Posture

The kinds of posture are:

  1. Standing
  2. Sitting
  3. Walking
  4. Running
  5. Lifting
  6. Lying

Postural Defects

They are postural abnormalities defined as minor single deviations from a correct posture.

Types of postural defects
  1. Scoliosis
  2. Kyphosis (Round Shoulder)
  3. Flatback
  4. Lordosis (Swayback)
  5. Forward neck or head


  • Scoliosis:

This is a sideways curvature of the spine that occurs mostly during growth spurt just before puberty.


Doctors don’t know what causes the most common types although it appears to involve hereditary factors, because disorders tend to run in the family.

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  • Kyphosis:

Kyphosis is a defect of the spine due to deficiency of vitamin D which is essential for the building of strong bones. The upper spine becomes excessively curved as a result of squeeze chest muscles and overstretched back muscles. It can occur at any age but is most common with older women.


Kyphosis is caused by the following:

    1. Carrying of heavy load on the back
    2. Sitting an infant too early
    3. Weak chest/back muscles
    4. Accidents
    5. Diseases
    6. Lack of physical exercise


  • Flat Back:

A flat back syndrome occurs when the spine loses the lower curve and becomes flat. This causes the spine to become imbalanced and the patient tends to lean forward. If you have flat back, you may have trouble standing up straight or having constant back or leg pain.


The flatback syndrome may develop due to:

    1. degenerative disc disease
    2. compression fractures
    3. ankylosing spondylitis.


  • Lordosis:

Lordosis is a curving inward of the lower back. It usually causes back pain and discomfort as well as affecting your ability to move. When you suffer from lordosis or swayback it may appear that you are sticking out your stomach and buttocks.

It also causes your shoulders to sit further back and your head tilts forward. This will throw off your balance and force your lower back to work harder.


This posture condition can be caused by many different things including:

    1. Kyphosis
    2. Obesity

A few other things that can contribute to swayback posture can be:

    1. Constantly wearing high heels
    2. Sleeping on your stomach


  • Forward Neck or Head:

In this posture position, the neck and head are in a forward position where the head is extending out past the shoulders. The forward neck can also be called text neck. This is because more and more, we are hunched over our phones and computers all day causing our neck to tilt forward.

You may be experiencing tension, stiffness, or pain in your neck, shoulders, and back. The body will follow where your head goes, so if your head is forward, your shoulders and back will also hunch forward.

good posture

Causes of postural defect

  1. Injury sustained from different forms of accident
  2. Diseases such as muscular dystrophy or polio
  3. Congenital abnormalities
  4. Poor nutrition
  5. Postural habits e.g. walking with one shoulder too high
  6. Habitual standing with weight on the foot

Contributing factors are:

  1. Lack of education or awareness of correct posture
  2. Sedentary lifestyle
  3. Occupational demands
  4. Joint stiffness
  5. Decreased fitness
  6. Muscle weakness
  7. Muscle tightness
  8. Poor core stability
  9. Poor ergonomic workstations

Effects of Poor Posture

  1. Difficulty in breathing
  2. Impaired blood circulation
  3. Reduction in muscle tone
  4. Unattractive appearance



We have come to the end of this class. We do hope you enjoyed the class?

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

In our next class, we will be talking about Human Trafficking. We are very much eager to meet you there.


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