Basic Concept of Geographic Information System (GIS)


Welcome to class! 

In today’s class, we will be talking about the basic concept of geographic information system (GIS). Enjoy the class!

Basic Concept of Geographic Information System (GIS)

Geographic Information System

geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of spatial or geographical data.

The acronym GIS is sometimes used for Geographical Information Science or Geospatial Information Studies to refer to the academic discipline or career of working with geographic information systems and is a large domain within the broader academic discipline of Geoinformatics.

In general, GIS describes any information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information. GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries (user-created searches), analyze spatial information, edit data in maps, and present the results of all these operations. Geographic information science is the science underlying geographic concepts, applications, and systems.

Data representation

GIS data represents real objects (such as roads, land use, elevation, trees, waterways, etc.).

Real objects can be divided into two abstractions: discrete objects (e.g., a house) and continuous fields (such as rainfall amount, or elevations).

Traditionally, there are two broad methods used to store data in a GIS for both kinds of abstractions mapping references: raster images and vector.

General evaluation
  1. What is GIS?
  2. Mention two features that can be represented with GIS.
  3. State three cultural features.
  4. Mention five physical features in your environment
  5. Define geography.


  1. State two uses of GIS.
  2. Write three features within the school that can be represented with GIS.


In our next class, we will be talking about Major Landform Features.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

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