Introduction to Geography: Meaning, Nature, Scope and Value of Geography


Welcome to class! 

In today’s class, we will be talking about the introduction to geography. Enjoy the class!

Introduction to Geography: Meaning, Nature, Scope and Value of Geography


Meaning of geography

The word Geography is derived from the Greek word ‘Geo’ meaning the earth, and ‘graph’ which means description. Geography can, therefore, be defined as the description of the earth.

However, Geography does not only describe the surface of the earth and its features. It also investigates the inter-relationship between man and his environment. Hence Geography can also be referred to as the study of people, their activities, places and physical things within the earth.

Geography deals with the study of different people in different locations of the earth including their activities like agriculture, mining, trading, fishing, manufacturing, construction, etc. Geography also relates to the different peoples of the world, their occupations, cultures, ways of dressing, religion, etc.

Besides, Geography involves the study of physical things within the earth such as rocks, mountains, plains, valleys, rivers, oceans, weather, rainfall, soils, vegetation, etc.n

Scope of geography

Geography is a social science subject which deals with the study of man, his activities and his environment. Its relevance cuts across many other subjects like Economics, Agricultural Science, Government, History, etc. It is concerned with the study of the size, shape and movement of the earth and other heavenly bodies, landmass, bodies of water, climate, vegetation and events in different places of the world. It also deals with the spatial distribution of animal and natural resources as well as human activities.


  1. What is Geography?
  2. The Greek word ‘Geo’ means what?
  3. Explain the scope of geography.

Value of geography

The value of geography or its importance include the following:

  1. It enables man to have a better understanding of his environment.
  2. Geography raises issues, problems and solutions vital to modern society.
  3. It consists of knowledge of the world around us i.e. it enables us to study the ways of lives of other people in other parts of the world.
  4. A well-trained geographer can perform many vital roles in the politics and socio-economic sector of society. He can use his geographical knowledge in such areas as urban, economic, rural or regional planning.
  5. Geography helps us to understand some other related topics in physics, chemistry, biology, economics, history, mathematics etc.
  6. It enables us to have a better understanding of physical things around us such as vegetation, climate, rivers, soil, oceans, mountains etc.
  7. It enables us to choose a career from which we can earn a living.


What are the values of Geography?

General self-evaluation
  1. What is Geography?
  2. Explain the scope of Geography.
  3. What is the importance of Geography in our society?
  4. ‘Geo’ in the word geography means what?
  5. The capital of Lagos state is ______.

Reading assignment

Essential Geography, O.A. Iwena, Pages 1-2.



  1. Write the capital of the following states in Nigeria (i) Ebonyi (ii) Plateau (iii) Ogun.
  2. State two importance of geography.


In our next class, we will be talking about the Solar System.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

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23 thoughts on “Introduction to Geography: Meaning, Nature, Scope and Value of Geography”

    1. Could you help us understand the explanations you are having difficulty with? Let’s know what your difficulties are, and we’ll do well to address them.

      Thank you.

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