Nigeria: Vegetation and Soils


Welcome to class! 

In today’s class, we will be talking about Nigeria: vegetation and soils. Enjoy the class!

Nigeria: Vegetation and Soils

Nigeria: Vegetation and Soils

Vegetation of Nigeria

The vegetation of Nigeria can be grouped into three major zones and these are:

  1. Forest zone/vegetation: This zone contains mainly trees and it is sub-divided into
  • Mangrove swamp forest: Salt and freshwater swamp.
  • Rain forest
  1. Savanna zone/vegetation: This zone is made up mainly of grasses and it is further sub-divided into three which are
  • Guinea savanna
  • Sudan savanna
  • Sahel savanna
  1. Montane vegetation: This is mainly found in highland areas such as Jos and Adamawa.


  1. What is vegetation?
  2. Describe the vegetation pattern of Nigeria

Soils in Nigeria    

Soil is defined as the thin surface of the uppermost layer of the earth’s crust on which plants grow.

Soils in Nigeria can be grouped into four major zones which are:

  1. Zone of laterite soil
  2. Zone of forest soil
  3. Zone of sandy soil
  4. Zone of alluvial soil
  • Zone of laterite soil:

These are found in the interior zone of Nigeria in places such as Jos, Markurdi, Minna, Enugu, Abuja etc. The soils are associated with guinea savanna and it is heavily leached due to rainfall. The soils are usually reddish in colour due to the presence of iron.

  • Zone of sandy soil:

These soils are found in the extreme northern part of Nigeria like Sokoto, Katsina, Kano, Damaturu, Maiduguri etc. The soils are associated with Sudan and Sahel savanna. These soils are formed due to dryness and depositing of sand by wind.

  • Zone of forest soil:

This is found in the southern belt and south-western part of Nigeria in places like Ibadan, Akure, Benin City, Ogun, Anambra, Imo etc. The soil is associated with forest vegetation and it is rich in humus due to fallen and decayed leaves

  • Zone of alluvial soils:

This is found around Ilorin, Lokoja, Niger-Delta areas of Warri, Port-Harcourt and Calabar. The soil is associated with fine alluvial soil deposits at the lower course of a river.


  1. List the zones of soils in Nigeria.
  2. Describe laterite soil.
  3. How is alluvial soil formed?
General evaluation
  1. Define soil.
  2. Mention three types of soil.
  3. Describe the zone of laterite soil.
  4. Describe the solar system.
  5. State the characteristics of Jupiter.

Reading assignment

Essential Geography, O.A. Iwena Pages 243-247.


  1. Define soil erosion.
  2. Mention three areas of wind erosion in Nigeria.


In our next class, we will be talking about Nigeria: Transportation and Industries.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

Should you any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

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2 thoughts on “Nigeria: Vegetation and Soils”

  1. Satisfactory but much need to be done on the explanation of climatic belts such as characteristics, location, plants species and importance. Thanks

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