Nigeria: Agriculture 


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In today’s class, we will be talking about Nigeria: agriculture. Enjoy the class!

Nigeria: Agriculture 

Agriculture in Nigeria 2017: Can it help to overcome recession in ...

Agriculture is defined as the cultivation of crops and rearing of animals for man’s use.

Types of agriculture  

  • Plantation (mechanized) agriculture:
  1. It requires commercial cultivation in which products are mainly for sale.
  2. It requires a large area of land.
  3. It usually involves the cultivation of perennial crops like cocoa, rubber, oil palm etc and is practised mostly in the south.
  4. The products are mainly raw materials used by processing industries.
  • Subsistence agriculture:
  1. Produce from subsistence agriculture is mainly for family consumption.
  2. It requires a small area of land.
  3. It involves the cultivation of many crops at a time i.e. mixed cropping.
  4. Food crops like maize, cassava, yam, etc are mainly grown.
  • Mixed farming:
  1. This system involves the cultivation of crops as well as the rearing of animals on the same piece of land.
  2. Crops mainly grown are rice, maize, yam, cassava, etc while animals reared may be cattle, sheep, poultry etc.
  3. It usually requires small area of land which is intensively cultivated.
  4. It is usually very close to urban centres where produce can easily be disposed of.
  5. It requires a good transport network for easy disposal of products.
  6. It requires a large market.
  7. Parts of the crops produced can be used to feed the animals while the animal droppings are used as manures.
  • Intensive agriculture:
  1. This can be referred to as market gardening or truck farming.
  2. This is mainly practised in thickly populated urban areas.
  3. It requires small area of land which is intensively cultivated throughout the year.
  4. It involves cultivation vegetables, fruits and flowers.
  5. It also involves the use of fertilizers.
  • Crop rotation:
  1. This involves the rotation of crops in sequence year after year so as to maintain the fertility of the soil.
  2. 3 – 5 different crops can be grown on the same piece of land but on different plots.
  3. Deep-rooted crops e.g. yam is followed by a shallow-rooted crop like maize during rotation.
  4. A legume is always incorporated to add nutrients to the soil.
  5. It also involves the use of fertilizer to improve the fertility of the soil.
  6. Food crops are mainly produced.
  • Shifting cultivation:
  1. It involves the movement of the farmer and his family from one piece of land to another when the land is no more fertile.
  2. Simple farm tools and family labour are employed
  3. Forest resources are destroyed.
  4. The land may rest for several years before it is put to use again.
  5. Food crops are mainly grown.
  6. Production is mainly for family consumption.
  7. It is practised where land is abundant and where population is very lows.
  • Pastoral farming:
  1. It is also referred to as nomadic herding.
  2. It involves the rearing of the only animal-like cattle, sheep and goat.
  3. It involves the constant movement of cattle and herdsmen called Fulanis from one place to another in search of pasture and water for the animals.
  4. Production is favoured by the presence of plenty of grass.
  5. Production is favoured by the absence of tsetse flies and is done in the North.


  1. What is agriculture?
  2. Mention the various types of agricultural practices in Nigeria.

Importance of agriculture

  1. Provision of food
  2. Employment
  3. Source of income
  4. Foreign exchange earning
  5. Provision of clothing and shelter
  6. Provision of the market for industrial goods
  7. Provision of raw materials for industries
  8. Development of towns

Problems of agriculture

  1. Inadequacy of fund/finance
  2. Poor transport network
  3. Inadequate storage and processing facilities
  4. Lack of basic amenities like electricity and pipe-borne water
  5. Use of crude tools and implements
  6. The problem of pest and diseases
  7. Unpredictable climate
  8. Inadequacy of storage facilities and processing facilities
  9. Negative attitude of people towards farming.

Solution to the problems

  1. Loans should be given to the farmers
  2. The road should be constructed to link rural areas with urban centres
  3. Storage and processing facilities should be provided at a reduced rate
  4. Farmers should use fertilizers to improve the fertility of the soil
  5. Basic amenities should be provided to discourage rural-urban migration
  6. Farmers should use irrigation system in periods of drought
  7. Modern farm implements like tractors, ploughs, ridges, etc should be used.
  8. Farmers should be trained to accept a modern system of farming.


  1. State the advantages of plantation agriculture.
  2. List the importance of agriculture.
General evaluation
  1. What is agriculture?
  2. Explain bush fallowing as a system of agriculture.
  3. What are the problems facing agriculture in Nigeria?
  4. Give solutions to the problems of agriculture.
  5. Describe the internal structure of the earth

Reading assignment

Essential Geography, O.A. Iwena Pages 259-262.


Draw an outline map of Nigeria and on it, show and name

  1. One area of pastoral farming
  2. One area of plantation agriculture


In our next class, we will be talking about Nigeria: Mineral Resources.  We hope you enjoyed the class.

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