Welcome to class!
In today’s class, we will be talking about Nigeria: agriculture. Enjoy the class!
Agriculture is defined as the cultivation of crops and rearing of animals for man’s use.
Types of agriculture
Plantation (mechanized) agriculture:
- It requires commercial cultivation in which products are mainly for sale.
- It requires a large area of land.
- It usually involves the cultivation of perennial crops like cocoa, rubber, oil palm etc and is practised mostly in the south.
- The products are mainly raw materials used by processing industries.
- Produce from subsistence agriculture is mainly for family consumption.
- It requires a small area of land.
- It involves the cultivation of many crops at a time i.e. mixed cropping.
- Food crops like maize, cassava, yam, etc are mainly grown.
- This system involves the cultivation of crops as well as the rearing of animals on the same piece of land.
- Crops mainly grown are rice, maize, yam, cassava, etc while animals reared may be cattle, sheep, poultry etc.
- It usually requires small area of land which is intensively cultivated.
- It is usually very close to urban centres where produce can easily be disposed of.
- It requires a good transport network for easy disposal of products.
- It requires a large market.
- Parts of the crops produced can be used to feed the animals while the animal droppings are used as manures.
- This can be referred to as market gardening or truck farming.
- This is mainly practised in thickly populated urban areas.
- It requires small area of land which is intensively cultivated throughout the year.
- It involves cultivation vegetables, fruits and flowers.
- It also involves the use of fertilizers.
- This involves the rotation of crops in sequence year after year so as to maintain the fertility of the soil.
- 3 – 5 different crops can be grown on the same piece of land but on different plots.
- Deep-rooted crops e.g. yam is followed by a shallow-rooted crop like maize during rotation.
- A legume is always incorporated to add nutrients to the soil.
- It also involves the use of fertilizer to improve the fertility of the soil.
- Food crops are mainly produced.
- It involves the movement of the farmer and his family from one piece of land to another when the land is no more fertile.
- Simple farm tools and family labour are employed
- Forest resources are destroyed.
- The land may rest for several years before it is put to use again.
- Food crops are mainly grown.
- Production is mainly for family consumption.
- It is practised where land is abundant and where population is very lows.
- It is also referred to as nomadic herding.
- It involves the rearing of the only animal-like cattle, sheep and goat.
- It involves the constant movement of cattle and herdsmen called Fulanis from one place to another in search of pasture and water for the animals.
- Production is favoured by the presence of plenty of grass.
- Production is favoured by the absence of tsetse flies and is done in the North.
- What is agriculture?
- Mention the various types of agricultural practices in Nigeria.
Importance of agriculture
- Provision of food
- Source of income
- Foreign exchange earning
- Provision of clothing and shelter
- Provision of the market for industrial goods
- Provision of raw materials for industries
- Development of towns
Problems of agriculture
- Inadequacy of fund/finance
- Poor transport network
- Inadequate storage and processing facilities
- Lack of basic amenities like electricity and pipe-borne water
- Use of crude tools and implements
- The problem of pest and diseases
- Unpredictable climate
- Inadequacy of storage facilities and processing facilities
- Negative attitude of people towards farming.
Solution to the problems
- Loans should be given to the farmers
- The road should be constructed to link rural areas with urban centres
- Storage and processing facilities should be provided at a reduced rate
- Farmers should use fertilizers to improve the fertility of the soil
- Basic amenities should be provided to discourage rural-urban migration
- Farmers should use irrigation system in periods of drought
- Modern farm implements like tractors, ploughs, ridges, etc should be used.
- Farmers should be trained to accept a modern system of farming.
- State the advantages of plantation agriculture.
- List the importance of agriculture.
- What is agriculture?
- Explain bush fallowing as a system of agriculture.
- What are the problems facing agriculture in Nigeria?
- Give solutions to the problems of agriculture.
- Describe the internal structure of the earth
Essential Geography, O.A. Iwena Pages 259-262.
Draw an outline map of Nigeria and on it, show and name
- One area of pastoral farming
- One area of plantation agriculture
In our next class, we will be talking about Nigeria: Mineral Resources. We hope you enjoyed the class.
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