Environmental Problems

 

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In today’s class, we will be talking about environmental problems. Enjoy the class!

Environmental Problems

Environmental Problems | classnotes.ng

Definition of Environmental Problems

Environmental problems or hazards are disasters which affect lives and properties as a result of the action of man and other natural phenomena. Environmental hazards have causes and effects. They can be controlled

Factors affecting Environmental Hazards

Forms of environmental hazards are:

  • Deforestation: 

This is the destruction of natural forest by the indiscriminate felling of lumberable trees

Causes
  1. Cutting of trees for timber
  2. Cutting down of trees for crop cultivation
  3. Excessive bush burning and grazing
Effects
  1. Deterioration of the environment
  2. Soil Erosion
  3. Destruction of soil nutrient
  4. Disrupts the act of keeping wildlife
  5. Decrease transpiration and increases erosion
Control
  1. Afforestation is the act of planting trees to replace those that have been cut down
  2. Decrees are the legislation against tree felling
  3. Alternate sources of fuel apart from wood
  4. Public enlightenment
  5. Licensing
  • Soil Erosion:

It is the removal of the top layer of the soil by the agents of denudation. These agents are water, wind and ice

Causes
  1. Bush- burning
  2. Overgrazing
  3. Excessive rainfall
  4. Deforestation
  5. Excavation of soil for various purposes example mining and construction
Effects
  1. Reduction of farmlands
  2. Reduction of soil fertility
  3. Destruction of roads
  4. Loss of lives and properties
  5. Land and water pollution through deposition of sediments
Controls
  1. Afforestation
  2. Contour ploughing or making ridge across slopes
  3. Bush fallowing
  4. Controlled grazing
  5. Planting of cover crops like legumes, melons, cowpea etc.
  6. Public enlightenment
  7. Through terracing
  8. An urban master plan to check developments
  • Drought:

It refers to dryness due to lack of rainfall in an area over a period of time

Causes
  1. Lack of rainfall
  2. Low humidity and cloud cover
  3. High temperature over a period of time without compensating rainfall
  4. Climatic fluctuation
Effects
  1. It affects plant growth
  2. Loss of crops and livestock
  3. Migration of man and animals
  4. Drying up of rivers and streams
Control
  1. Irrigation
  2. Avoidance of overgrazing
  3. Planting of cover crops
  • Desert Encroachment: 

It is the spread of desert to areas that were not desert.

Causes
  1. Excessive bush burning
  2. Overgrazing
  3. Deforestation
  4. Climate fluctuation
Effects
  1. Exposure of soil to wind erosion
  2. A hot and dusty and dry environment
  3. Shortage of water
  4. Migration
Control
  1. Afforestation
  2. Irrigation
  3. Conservation of trees, surface and underground water
  4. Creation of shelterbelts
  5. Rotational grazing
  • Flooding: 

It is the occurrence of an excessive flood of water in areas not usually waterlogged. Flooding is also defined as the accumulation of an abnormally large volume of water in an area which has refused to percolate of flow away. It usually occurs when there is heavy rainfall in an area

Causes
  1. Excessive rainfall
  2. Dumping of refuse
  3. Establishments of settlements along the river
  4. Inadequate urban planning
  5. Presence of steep slopes in the area
  6. Poor drainage systems
Effects
  1. Flooding causes loss of lives and properties
  2. Interruption of socio economic activities
  3. Washes away roads and railways
  4. It lead to diversion of public funds
  5. Spread water borne disease
  6. Leads to the destruction of farmlands
Control
  1. Construction of wider gutters
  2. Environmental sanitation
  3. Regular clearance of drainage channels
  4. Avoid dumping in water channels
  5. Construction of dams to acts as flood reservoirs

 

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