Welcome to class! 

In today’s class, we will be talking about settlement. Enjoy the class!


human settlements geography classnotesng

Urban and rural settlements depend on each other for their continuous existence

  • Dependence of Urban Settlement on Rural Settlement

The rural areas perform the following functions for the urban centres.

  1. Provision of Food: Urban areas like cities and large towns depend on rural areas for foodstuff like yam, plantain beans, cassava, tomatoes etc.
  2. Unskilled Labour Supply: So many unskilled labours in urban areas is supplied by rural areas due to the low level of most people in the rural area.
  3. Medicinal herbs: Pharmaceutical companies in cities depend on the rural areas for the supply of medicinal herbs and roots.
  4. Industrial Raw Materials: Raw materials like latex, cocoa, cotton etc.  Needed by manufacturing industries are supplied from rural areas to the industries in urban areas:

urban-vs-rural settlement classnotesng

However, some problems that limit the performance of the rural areas to perform these functions include:

  1. Rural-Urban Migration
  2. Increasing literacy level by rural dwellers.
  3. Lack of agricultural lands to farm
  4. Technological development which makes the whole world a global village.
  5. A natural disaster like soil erosion, flooding etc.
  • Ways the Rural Settlements depend on Urban Settlements

The urban centres perform the following functions for the rural areas:

  1. Manufactured good such as the supply of processed food like milk, sugar, bread, drugs etc.
  2. Market: Urban areas like Lagos and Ibadan provide markets for agricultural products from rural areas
  3. Employment e.g. to skilled and unskilled labour from rural areas.
  4. Higher Education: Rural areas depend on urban areas for higher education such as universities polytechnics etc.
  5. Capital Flow: There is always a flow of capital from urban to rural areas e.g. the flow of currencies, trade and commerce including shares and stocks.
  6. Information: Radio, television, newspapers etc. usually disseminate information from the urban areas to the rural areas.
  7. Medical Services: Rural areas enjoy medical services from urban areas such include: the services of Teaching and Specialist Hospital, General Hospitals etc.
  8. Administrative Function: Most of the administrative headquarters are in urban areas.  Rural areas, therefore, depend on urban areas for effective governance.
  9. Diffusion of innovation and ideas: e.g. social and education ideas flow from the urban areas to the rural areas e.g. Internet facilities, satellite and cable network, styles and fashion, resort centres, hotels etc.

urban-vs-rural-living geography classnotesng

However, some major problems may limit the performance of the above functions by urban area;

  1. Political discrimination
  2. Nepotism and Tribalism
  3. Inadequate communication facilities between the two areas.
  4. Storage problems due to seasonality of products.
  5. Tribal/inter-tribal wars and other social unrest.
General evaluation
  1. What is a rural area?
  2. State the types of rural area.
  3. Mention the types of an urban area.
  4. Explain the interdependence between rural areas and urban centres.
  5. What are the problems hindering the performance of urban centres?


In our next class, we will be talking about Geo-Political Issues (Land Reclamation): Afforestation, Construction of Barriers, Sand Filling, Construction of Drainage and Control of Erosion. We hope you enjoyed the class.

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2 thoughts on “Settlement”

  1. hi guys,I love this site,well done for your good works.I have one request ,please I need notes for the following subjeects:
    Technical drawing and Electrical installation and maintenance work. Thanks

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