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In today’s class, we will be talking about plantation agriculture in West and East Africa. Enjoy the class!
Plantation Agriculture in West and East Africa
Plantation agriculture can be defined as the cultivation of certain crops (usually Cash crops) on a large area of land.
CROPS INVOLVED IN PLANTATION AGRICULTURE
It involves the planting of perennial crops such as
- Oil palm
- Coffee, etc.
CHARACTERISTIC OF PLANTATION AGRICULTURE
- It requires a large area of land.
- It requires a large labour force.
- It involves the cultivation of one type of Crop only on a piece of land (MONOCULTURE).
- Crops produced are mainly exported.
- All farm operations are mechanized.
- It requires large capital to operate.
- They are mainly owned by the government and large foreign or local companies.
FACTORS FAVOURABLE FOR PLANTATION AGRICULTURE
- Sub equatorial type of climate with adequate rainfall.
- The fertility of the soil especially the volcanic soil in East Africa.
- Availability of cheap labour and adequate capital.
- Availability of good transport network.
- Presence of large Markets to consume or use the products.
IMPORTANCE OF PLANTATION FARMING
- Crops produced provide raw materials for Industries.
- It is a source of income to the farmers.
- It provides employment to many people.
- Farmers learn and acquire new skills.
- They are centres of Agricultural research.
- Cash crops like cocoa, rubber, tea, coffee when exported, yield foreign exchange for the country.
PROBLEMS OF PLANTATION AGRICULTURE
- Difficulties in the acquisition of large expanse of land.
- It leads to the education of land for town development.
- Inadequate capital and labour (skilled and unskilled).
- Price fluctuation. i.e. the unstable price of crops in the world market.
- Pest and diseases-diseases spread fast because of the monocultural nature and the permanent location of the farms.
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS
- Provision of loans or credit facilities.
- Government participation.
- Provision of roads and other infrastructures.
- Proper management to prevent an outbreak of diseases.
AREAS OF PLANTATION
In East Africa
- Tea and tobacco plantation in Kenya
- Coffee plantation in Uganda
- Sisal in Tanga District and Coastal area in Tanzania
- Sugar cane in Tanzania and Uganda
In West Africa
- Cocoa plantation in Ibadan and Akure in Nigeria, Kumasi in Ghana
- Rubber in Benin, Howbel (Liberia)
- Oil plantation in Aba, Okitipupa.
- Mention four crops produced in plantation Agriculture.
- State three problems of plantation Agriculture and in what ways can these problems be solved.
- Mention some areas of plantation agriculture in Africa.
- State the economic importance of plantation farming.
- Highlight factors favourable for plantation farming.
In our next class, we will be talking about Fruit Farming in the Mediterranean Regions of Africa. We hope you enjoyed the class.
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