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In today’s class, we will be talking more about the action of running water. Enjoy the class!
The Action of Running Water II
MIDDLE COURSE OF A RIVER
Characteristics of the middle course of a river
- Lateral erosion is dominant over vertical erosion, resulting in widening of the river valley.
- There is an increase in the volume of water due to the addition of more water from tributaries.
- There is an increase in the load of the river.
- The work of the river is mainly transportation with little deposition.
- Mention the stages of a river and a feature in each stage.
- Mention three characteristics of a river in its middle course.
PROCESSES OF RIVER TRANSPORTATION
The load of a river is carried or transported along the course of a river through four main processes. These are:
FEATURES OF MIDDLE COURSE OF A RIVER
- Wide V-shaped Valley
- River Cliff and Slip – off Slopes
- Interlocking Spur
LOWER COURSE OF A RIVER
Characteristics of the lower course of a river
- The main work of the river is the deposition of materials.
- There is active lateral erosion.
- There is lowering of the gradient of the valley floor.
- There is a drastic reduction in the speed of the river.
FEATURES OF LOWER COURSE OF A RIVER:
- Flood plain
- Ox-bow lake
- Braided river
A river system which includes the main river and its tributaries may develop certain patterns from their basin and the types of drainage patterns include:
- Dendritic drainage pattern: In this type, the tributaries called the subsequent rivers to join the main river called the consequent river at an oblique angle. It is a tree-like structure i.e. like branches of a tree which develop on homogenous rocks of bed.
- Trellised drainage pattern: This is formed due to the alternate layers of hard and soft rocks, resulting in the tributaries following the pattern of the rock structure and at a right- angle to the main river in form of rectangular shape.
- Radial drainage pattern: The streams or tributaries flow outward and down the hill thus given rise to a radial drainage pattern like the shape of a bicycle wheel.
- Centripetal drainage pattern: In this type, many rivers or streams flow from different directions into a lake.
- Annular drainage pattern: The mainstream or river almost form a concentric ring around a highland i.e it almost flows round or encircles a hill.
IMPORTANCE OF RIVERS
- Medium of transportation.
- Generation of hydro-electric power (H.E.P) where rapids and waterfalls exist.
- Provides water for irrigation purposes.
- Provision of water for domestic and industrial purposes.
- Formation of flood plain by rivers also provides fertile soil for agricultural activities.
- Rivers provide food e.g. fish, prawns, crabs, etc.
- It provides employment to many people e.g. fishermen and canoe builders.
- Some rivers act as political boundaries between states, regions and nations.
- Some rivers are centres of tourist attraction and may generate foreign exchange.
- What is running water?
- State the stages of a river.
- Explain the processes of river erosion.
- State the processes of river transportation.
- Mention the features of a river in its lower course.
In our next class, we will be talking about Action of Wind. We hope you enjoyed the class.
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