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In today’s Basic Science class, We will continue our lecture about Crude Oil and Petrochemicals. We hope you enjoy the class!
TOPIC: CRUDE OIL AND PETROCHEMICALS 2
The refining process of crude oil has been considered in the last lesson. We will be looking at the uses of the different fractions gotten from the refining of crude oil.
USES OF FRACTIONS OF CRUDE OIL
- Petroleum gases: These are the gases liberated at the top of the fractionating column at a temperature below 40 degrees Celsius. They are used mainly as fuels for homes and industries. They are also used for the manufacture of some important products.
- Petroleum ether and ligroin: The petroleum ether or light petroleum is gotten from the fractionating column at a temperature of between 40 degrees to 60 degrees Celsius, the ligroin or naphtha is gotten at 60 to 100 degrees Celsius. Both fractions are used as organic solvents. Naphtha is also used as a chemical feedstock.
- Petrol or Gasoline: This fraction, also called premium motor spirit (PMS), is a volatile liquid gotten between the temperature range of 40 and 200 degrees Celsius. It is used as fuel for aeroplanes and motor vehicles. It is also used as solvents for paints and grease.
- Kerosene: This is also called dual-purpose kerosene (DPK). It is gotten at a temperature range of 200 to 250 degrees Celsius. It is used as fuel for lighting and heating and for driving tractors and some modern jet engines. It is also used as a solvent for grease and paints. It can also be used to produce gasoline.
- Diesel oil or Gas oil: This is also called automotive gas oil (AGO). It is a viscous liquid gotten at a temperature range of 250 to 350 degrees Celsius. Diesel is used mainly as fuel for heating and driving diesel engines.
- Lubricating oil: These are heavy oils which are gotten from the fractionating column at a temperature range of 350 to 500 degrees Celsius. It is viscous and it is used for lubricating moving parts of engines and machines. Other products that belong to this group are grease, Vaseline and paraffin wax. Vaseline is used for hair and skincare. Paraffin wax is used in making candles, polish and waterproof materials.
- Bitumen: Bitumen is the solid residue left behind in the fractionating column at a temperature above 500 degrees Celsius. Bitumen also known as pitch, is used for surfacing roads and airfields.
USES OF PETROCHEMICALS
Petrochemicals are used as raw materials for industrial production of essential materials such as
- Polymers (plastics), paints, synthetic rubber and textiles
- Food additives
IMPORTANCE OF CRUDE OIL AND PETROCHEMICALS
Crude oil and petrochemicals:
- Provide employment opportunities for people involved in oil exploration and exploitation which includes drilling, refining, distribution, marketing, exportation etc.
- Are sources of revenue for individuals and the nation
- Are sources of energy
- Products and sources of industrial raw materials, thus making our industries functional.
We have come to the end of this class. We do hope you enjoyed the class?
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