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In Nigeria Some crops and animals are found in some parts of the country and they are not found in other parts. The major reasons for this observed distribution are climatic factors, i.e. rainfall, temperature, light and wind. Other reasons are favorable vegetation, soil type, and pests and diseases.


Favorable Vegetation

Crops and animals grow well in areas or zones where the forest vegetation is favorable to their growth and development.



The amount of rain (high, average or low) determines the type of crops and animals that can do well in an area or zone.



  1. Find out from your Parents some of the crops and animals that are found in the

following parts of Nigeria:

  1. a) Northern Nigeria
  2. b) North-central Nigeria
  3. c) Southern Nigeria



The degree of temperature (low, medium or high) of any place determines the type of crops or animals that can do well there.


Sunshine and Wind

The level of sunshine and wind (high or low) in a zone affects the growth, time of maturity and method of processing of crops in that zone.


Soil Type

The type of soil (sand, loam or clay) of an area or zone determines the type of crop that can do well there.


Pests and Diseases

The types of pests and diseases found in any zone determine the type of animals that can be raised there.


Other Factors:

Other factors apart from climatic conditions that are responsible for distribution of plants and animals in the country are: Availability of grass. Cattle rearing is only common in places where there are enough grasses to feed the animals. The type of vegetation and topography of the land are also factors. The Customs and beliefs of the people in a community plays a role. For instance, a community can believe that a particular animal is a taboo to them. Also, other factors include

  • Religious beliefs of the people test and pathogens


Action of man

The type of soil (crops only)



  1. What is climate?
  2. List the things that make up the climate.
  3. Name the vegetation zones of Nigeria. Describe each of them.
  4. Draw a map of Nigeria showing the crops found in the various vegetation zones.
  5. Name four major domestic animals reared in Nigeria. Show where they are located on a map of Nigeria.
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