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There are three main activities involved in crop production: pre-planting, planting and post-planting activities.

Pre-planting Activities in Crop Production

Pre-planting activities in crop production are the activities carried out before planting. These include all the operations carried out from the nursery to planting

of seedlings in the farm. These operations may be carried out on the nursery or

the farm.


Pre-planting Activities on The Nursery

Crop production usually starts from the nursery. A nursery, in agriculture, is a place where young plants are raised for later transplanting in the field. Examples of crops that can be grown through the nursery are tomato, rice, onion, garden egg, cabbage,orange, mango, oil palm, cocoa, rubber and coffee.

Some crops cannot be grown through the nursery. Their seeds or stems are

planted directly on beds or ridges in the field. Examples of such crops are yam, cassava, bean, okro, maize, banana, melon, cotton and groundnut.


The following activities are carried Out in nursery preparation: site selection,

land clearing and stumping, seed bed preparation and sowing, care and maintenance of the nursery, and keeping of nursery records.




  1. What is a nursery in agriculture?
  2. Differentiate between a nursery and a farm or garden.


Pre-planting Activities on The Farm

The pre-planting activities to be carried out on the farm include site selection, clearing and stumping, seed bed and ridge making, mulching, transplanting of seedlings and keeping of farm records. Site selection A suitable site is selected for the crop to be grown. Such a site should have the following qualities:

  1. A well-drained loamy soil.
  2. It must be near to a source of water


  1. It must have no shade trees.
  2. There must be no hills or large rocks

and stones.

  1. It must be well secured from thieves and domestic animals.

Land Clearing and Stumping

The farm should be cleared by removing grass and shrubs. Tall trees must also be cut down. The cut grass and leaves of shrubs must be packed in heaps and burnt. The stumps of trees and shrubs must be uprooted and packed away.


Seed Bed and Ridge Making

Seed bed preparation can be done manually with hoes (tillage) or mechanically with tractors. The following four steps must be taken in making seed beds or ridges for planting:

Step 1: Mark out the bed or ridge. Follow

the steps for marking out nursery beds

earlier described.

Step 2: Dig the marked out bed or ridge

portions to break up the soil as was done

in the nursery preparation.

Step 3: Apply manure and mix thoroughly

with the soil.

Step 4: Make crossbars in the furrows

between the beds or ridges.



The beds or ridges must be mulched with dry grass or leaves. The beds or ridges

should be watered if necessary.


Planting Activities

There are mainly two planting activities:

  1. Planting of seeds in farms.
  2. Transplanting of seedlings from

nurseries to the main farm(if there is a nursery)



  1. Mention the pre planting activities that must take place during crop production.
  2. Mention two planting activities.

Post-planting Activities In Crop Production


These are activities carried out after planting. The post-planting activities in crop production are:

Thinning and supplying,



Fertilizer application,


Insect and pest control,

Harvesting and

Keeping a farm diary.





  1. What is post planting activities?
  1. List and explain four post planting activities that farmers engage in.
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