Changing Active Sentences into Passive, et al.


So good to have you in class today.



There are some rules for changing active voice sentences to passive. They are:

  1. The subject in the active voice becomes the object in the passive voice while the object in the active voice becomes the subject in the passive voice.



I bought a new car. (Active voice)

Here, “I” is the subject while “a new car” is the object.

Now let’s turn that sentence into a passive voice.

The new car was bought by me. (Passive voice)

“The new car” becomes the subject while “I” change to “me” and becomes the object.


  1. The main verb in the active sentence changes to its third form or past participle in the passive sentence.

Let us see some verbs in their first, second and third forms respectively:






Wole Soyinka wrote many books.

Many books were written by Wole Soyinka.

You must have noticed that the second form verb “wrote” in the active sentence became “written”, the third form.


  1. Use the preposition “by” before the object in the passive sentence.


My brother composed the song. (Active voice)

The song was composed by my brother. (Passive)


  1. Sometimes you may completely omit the subject from the passive voice if the idea you are trying to convey is clear.


Weight is measured in kilograms. (Active)

Kilograms is the measurement for weight. (Passive)


  1. Also, note that words like “to”/” with” are used in passive voice.


Love fills my heart. (Active)

My heart is filled with love. (Passive)



Try to change these active voice sentences into passive ones.

  1. I love my English teacher.
  2. My Uncle did this painting.
  3. I love going home.
  4. The Police picked up the boys.






Looking back, they could see the dark line of the hedge through the stems of trees that were already thick about them. Looking ahead, they could see only tree-trunks of innumerable sizes and shapes: straight or bent, twisted, leaning, squat or slender, smooth or gnarled and branched; and all the stems were green or grey with moss and slimy, shaggy growths.

Merry alone seemed fairly cheerful. “You had better lead on and find that path, “Frodo said to him, “Don’t let us lose one another, or forget which way the hedge lies!”

They picked a way among the trees, and their ponies plodded along, carefully avoiding the many writhing and interlacing roots. There was no undergrowth. The ground was rising steadily, and as they went forward, it seemed that the trees became taller, darker and thicker. There was no sound, except on occasional drip of moisture falling through the still leaves. For the moment there was no whispering or movement among the branches, but they all got an uncomfortable feeling that they were being watched with disapproval… The feeling steadily grew, until they found themselves looking up quickly, or glancing back over their shoulders, as if they expected a sudden blow.

forest agric science classnotesng      ppp

There was not as yet any sign of the path, and the trees seemed constantly to bar their way. Pippin suddenly felt that he could not bear it any longer and without warning let out a shout. “Oi! Oi!” he cried. “I am not going to do anything. Just let me pass through, will you!”

The others halted startled, but the cry fell as if muffled by a heavy curtain. There was no echo or answer though the wood seemed to become more crowded and watchful than before.

“I should not shout, if I were you,” said Merry. “It does more harm than good.”

Frodo began to wonder if it were possible to find a way through, and if he had been right to make the others come into this abominable wood. Merry was looking from side to side, and seemed already uncertain which way to go. Pippin noticed it. “It has not taken you long to lose us,” he said. But at that moment, Merry gave a whistle of relief and pointed ahead.



Give answers to the following questions.

  1. How were Frodo and his friends travelling through the forest?
  2. Which one of the three seemed ‘fairly cheerful’?
  3. What was the only sound to be heard?
  4. What feeling did the characters have as they went through the forest?
  5. Who shouted out?




We will be learning new words.


Innumerable… Too many to be counted


Squat… Short and thick


Gnarl… To twist into a knotted or distorted form


Moss… A small, soft, green plant which grows on damp soil, on wood or stone


Shaggy… Long and messy.


Ponies… Something small of its kind, e.g., of a tree.


Plod… To walk heavily over or along


Writhing… To twist or bend out of shape or position


Interlacing… Parts of one thing going over, under, or between parts of another.


Undergrowth… Bushes and plants growing together under the trees in a forest.


Disapproval… A feeling or a show that you do not approve of something or someone.


Halted… For someone to stop moving in the direction they were going and stand still.


Muffled… To make a sound quieter and more difficult to hear.


Abominable… Very unpleasant or bad.


Relief… A feeling of happiness because something unpleasant has not happened or is no longer happening



Make sentences with the words. I will do the first one.

Innumerable… The ants in my room are innumerable.





Today, we will be writing a letter to officially invite someone to a party.


                                                                                                                 Frills Company,


15th Jan, 2018.

The Managing Director,

Stone Age Ltd.,



Dear Ma,


On behalf of Frills Company, I will warmly like to invite you for a luncheon party to celebrate the 7th year of our prestigious company. The event will take place on the 5th of Feb,2018 within our premises by 12pm.


We will be glad to share the day with you. We look forward to receiving your response soonest. Thank you.


Yours sincerely,


HR Personnel,

Frills Company.


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