Identification of Past Perfect Tense, et al

You are welcome to today’s class. 




The Present Perfect Tense is used when we are talking about an event that started in the past and the event still has some influence in the present. The present perfect tense is formed by using ‘has’ or ‘have’ and the past participle of the verb.

The Past Perfect Tense on the other hand is used when we are talking about an event that started in the past and also ended in the past. The past perfect tense is formed by combining ‘had’ with the past participle of the verb.



  1. I have been to the Eleko Beach.

This is a sentence in the present perfect tense to talk about an experience.

  1. Her handwriting has improved since she started practicing.

This sentence talks about change over time and so it is in the present perfect tense.

  1. I have not finished my lunch.

This sentence is about an unfinished task, it is in the present perfect tense.

  1. I had played basketball in Junior High School.

This sentence is in the past perfect tense as it suggests that the speaker is in more in junior high school.

  1. Jadeth had walked past the building when she saw me.

This sentence is in the past perfect tense. The ‘walking’ and the ‘seeing’ happened in the past.


Note that if you find ‘have’ and ‘had’ used together in a sentence and ‘have’ comes first, it is a sentence in the present perfect tense.


My friends have had phones since school resumed.






A digraph is a sound made by two consonants when put together. Digraphs may come at the beginning or end of a word.

We will be looking at the “gh” digraph which consists of the consonants “g” and “h.” Just like other digraphs, the “gh” digraph may be found at the beginning or the end of words. However, when this diagraph is found at the end of a word, it is produced as the /f/ sound.


Examples at the beginning:






Examples in the end: /f/








Let us see them in sentences…


  1. The driver was rough and so he ended up in a ghastly
  2. I saw a comedy yesterday at the cinema, a ghost coughed in the movie.
  3. Tolu stood aghast at the sight of the snake while her brother laughed at her.





Imagine you were away in a boarding school and you needed to write to your Mum to make a request, how would you go about it?

I will show you.


                                                            Spring Schools,

                                                            P.O.B 3241,


                                                            2nd Feb. 2016.

Dear Mum,

I hope this letter meets you in good health and high spirit. I am fine and in good health too but I miss you and dad.

I am writing to make a request. We will be having our annual inter-house sports on the 30th of March and I will be representing my house, Victory House as the Queen. I need something nice to wear, I want you to bring along my lovely peach dress that I wore to Auntie Kate’s wedding. Please bring my tiara, magic wand and my peach Frozen character shoes. Please buy some hairpins for me to hold my hair in place.

I hope dad will be coming with you at the next visiting day. Give Sammy a hug for me, tell him to send me a love gift. I can’t wait to see you at the end of the month. I love you!

                                                            Your princess,






eee      fff

The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) is a Nigerian law enforcement agency that investigates financial crimes. The EFCC was established in 2003.

The Establishment Act mandates the EFCC to combat financial and economic crimes. The Commission is empowered to prevent, investigate, prosecute and penalise economic and financial crimes and is charged with the responsibility of enforcing the provisions of other laws and regulations relating to economic and financial crimes.

The Mission Statement of the agency is to rid Nigeria of Economic and Financial Crimes and to effectively coordinate the domestic effort of the global fight against money laundering and terrorist financing. Its Vision is to become an agency operating to best international standards and leading the fight against economic and financial crimes in Nigeria.

The agency has its head office in Abuja. The acting chairman of EFCC is DCP. Mohammed Umar Abba.





Let us find out what some words mean according to the idea in the passage.                          

Commission… A group of people who have been appointed to find out about something or to control something.


Act… A law passed by the government.


Combat… To try to stop something from happening.


Penalise… To punish or make somebody suffer in some way because of what they have done.


Rid… To act against something so that it is totally removed or so that one is no longer affected by it.


Effective… To work well and produce the results that were intended.


Laundering… To process money that has ben obtained illegally through a legitimate business or to send it abroad to a foreign bank, so that when it comes back nobody knows that it was illegally obtained.


Terrorist… A person who uses violence, especially murder and bombing, in order to achieve political aims.




Let me make a sentence with the first word, you will then make sentences with the others.           

Commission… My pastor always says that our church is a commission.


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