Comprehension, Vocabulary Development, Use of intonation in Requests, Formal Letter Writing Sample

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Falling intonation is used for asking and giving information in normal, quiet, unemphatic style. At the same time, falling intonation conveys certain emotions, such as completion, finality, confidence. Falling intonation sounds more categorical, confident, and convincing than rising intonation.

A request is the act of asking something to be given or done. The falling intonation is generally used for Requests.


May I go OUT?

Can I join you on this TRIP?

Could I use your PHONE?


However, a request in the form of a general question with rising intonation is normal and polite, while a request with falling intonation sounds like a command and may be impolite.

Could you give me a /PEN, please? (Polite request.)

Could you give me a \PEN, please? (Sounds like a command; the answer “yes” is expected.)







The population of the world’s rain-forests is rising, but the rain-forests themselves are shrinking!

During the 20th century, huge areas of rain-forest were cut down, while more and more people in countries like Brazil and Indonesia moved into rain-forest areas in search of land. These people moved from cities which had become overcrowded. Trees were cut down by farmers who wanted to grow crops.

Unfortunately, once rain-forest trees have been cut down and the undergrowth cleared, soil is very easily washed away into rivers by heavy rain. The soil that remains quickly loses its goodness and cannot produce crops. The farmers soon have to have to move on and clear new areas of forest to farm.

As well as individual farmers, large companies have also moved into the rain-forests to exploit their rich resources. Vast stretches of forest have been felled by logging companies which export the valuable timber around the world. Mining companies have also destroyed enormous areas of rain-forest by digging large mines.

The loss of so much of the world’s rain-forest is a serious problem. Scientists have warned that the destruction of the rain-forests is harming the Earth and should be stopped. But why? The Earth’s atmosphere is polluted by chemicals produced by industry and cars. Rain-forest plants help to remove many of the dangerous gases from the atmosphere, as well as producing much of the oxygen that we breathe.

Rain-forests have been described as the lungs of the planet. They are essential to our survival. As well as keeping the air clean, people have become aware that different parts of rain-forest can be used to produce valuable medicines and may be the key to finding cures for serious diseases.

Some people think that rain-forest should not be used. This is easy to say if you are not one of those people who depend on the rain-forest for income and food. Many people have no other choice.

So, what is the solution? We have to learn to use the rain-forests’ many resources in a way that will not destroy them forever. Governments can pass laws to protect their forests. Instead of destroying vast areas, companies can create jobs elsewhere so that fewer people have to walk and live in the rain-forests. Timber companies can ensure they plant new trees to replace those they cut down. New ways of farming in rain-forests are being developed in Brazil. Farmers are encouraged to plant thin strips of lands with crops. Between each strip the rain-forest is left standing.

More than half the plants and animals that live in the world’s rain-forests do not exist anywhere else in the world. It is our responsibility to ensure that these forests are used wisely and preserved for future generations.


Answer these questions by saying indicating if each statement is true or false. 

  1. The population of the world’s rain-forests is getting smaller.
  2. Rain-forest is sometimes cleared so that local people can grow crops.
  3. Mining and logging have destroyed vast stretches of forest.
  4. Rain-forests put dangerous gases into the atmosphere.
  5. Brazil is developing new ways of farming in rain-forests.



Let’s learn some words from our passage.


Shrinking… Growing smaller


Exploits… Destroy


Felled… Cut down


Polluted… Made dirty


Essential… Necessary


Solution… The answer to the problem.



The term nonfiction refers to works of writing that deal with true facts. An example is our passage on Protecting our Rain forests. You must have noticed that the passage talks about real life issues about humans and rain forests. On the other hand, fiction is a product of the author’s imagination. While non-fiction works can be categorized as fitness, economics, home decoration, etc., fiction includes plenty of genres like romance, science fiction, thriller, etc. in simple terms, non-fiction are more like short stories and novels.

It seems easy to tell the difference between them. Fiction is creative by nature, but non-fiction can also be creative, when the author writes like he is writing fiction. Most of the times in fiction, it is the author or writer that thinks to create the story, the characters in the story are not usually real too.

The main difference between Fiction and non-fiction is purpose. The purpose or function of non-fiction is to INFORM while that of Fiction is to entertain.





Imagine you went into an eatery with your friends. When you took your seats, you realized that many things were off about the place. Write a letter to complain to the manager of the eatery.



13 Boulevard Way,


17th Sept, 2012.

The Manager,

Forks and Fingers,



Dear Sir/Madam,


I am writing to complain about a meal we had in your restaurant yesterday.

We had booked a table for six but when we arrived, there were no free tables and we had to wait for more than 45 minutes to sit down. From a menu of 12 dishes, only four were available and their quality were poor. The fish in particular tasted awful and the waiter was rude when we told him about this.

We have eaten in your restaurant several times in the past but this is the first time we have received such bad treatment. I am not asking for a refund but I would like you to improve the quality of your dishes and service.


Yours faithfully,


Full Name.



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