Identification of Present Perfect Tenses, et al.


How are you today?



Tenses are reflected in the verbs. Verbs as we know are action or doing words. Tenses shows if the action has happened, is happening or will happen. The past tense shows us the action has happened, the present tense shows it is happening while the future tense shows it will happen or yet to happen.

Under the present tense, we have what we call the Present Perfect Tense. This tense connects a past action to the present time.




  1. We use the present perfect tense to talk about experiences.


Have you ever eaten any Yoruba native soup?

Have you been to the museum in the city?



  1. It is used to talk about accomplishments.

Man has lived in other planets.

The government has completed the project.


  1. It is used to talk about changes over time.

I have become more attentive in class.

She has become happier.


  1. It is used to talk about finished actions (past event-present result.)

She has lost her textbook.



  1. It is used to show recent completed actions.

I have just cleared my room.


The man has just left the hall.


  1. It is used to show unfinished actions.

I have worshipped in that church for 10 years.

My Mum has made sandwiches for breakfast on Mondays since I resumed school.







A digraph is a sound made by two consonants when put together. Digraphs may come at the beginning of words or at the end. Examples of digraphs are “ch, gh, sh, ph, th”


Let us look at the first one.


The digraph “ch” combines “c” and “h”.

The digraph may come at the beginning of words or at the end.


Examples in the beginning:








Examples at the end:











NDLEA is an abbreviation for The National Drug Law Enforcement Agency. It is a Federal Agency in Nigeria that is empowered to eliminate the growing, manufacturing, processing, trafficking, selling and exporting hard drugs. This agency was instituted by Decree #48 of January 1990.

The NDLEA is always present at the international airports and is always ready to confiscate heroin and arrest drug dealers. Also, it holds attacks raids at transborder seaports and border crossing points.

The main aim of the NDLEA is to completely destroy the cannabis by extirpating the plants. Another aim is to try to catch the leaders of drugs and money laundering gangs.

One of their functions is to try to recover all ill-gotten wealth, acquired from proceeds of illegal drug trading. The NDLEA also has the function to defend, strengthen, and maintain the image of Nigeria and Nigerians both at home and abroad. Another important function is for the NDLEA to make arrests where necessary and convey such drug dealer to the police.

The NDLEA has a training school called Citadel Counter Narcotics Nigeria located at Katu Rikos, Plateau State. The current chairman of NDLEA is Muhammad Mustapha Abdallah.




  1. What does NDLEA stand for?
  2. When was the agency instituted?
  3. What is the main aim of the agency?
  4. How many functions of NDLEA were mentioned in the passage?
  5. In your own words, summarize what the NDLEA is about.





We will be finding out the meanings of some words from our passage on NDLEA.


Abbreviation… A short form of a word or phrase made by leaving out some of the letters or by using only the first letter of each word.


Trafficking… An illegal commercial of humans or things.


Agency… A government organization responsible for a certain area of administration.


Confiscate… To seize or take something away from someone, usually as a punishment.


Border… The dividing line between two countries or two regions. It may also refer to the land close to this line.


Extirpate… To remove or destroy totally; to do away with.


Ill-gotten… Acquired by dishonest, improper or evil means.


Proceeds… The total amount derived from a sale or other transaction.


Narcotics… Any kind of illegal drugs.


Note that these words may have other meanings from what we leant there. We chose the meanings here because they help explain the passage better.


Make sentences with each of these words. Let me do the first one.

Abbreviation… NDLEA is the abbreviation for the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency.






Imagine your sister was graduating from the University and then your dad asks you to write letters to invite his friends for the ceremony.


Let us write the first one.


12b Jack Estate,


Cape Town.

12th June, 2013.

6, Abraham Close,



Dear Mr. Jabulani,


It is with great joy in our hearts that we invite you to the graduation ceremony of our first daughter, Kaya from the distinguished University of Pretoria. We are requesting that you join us in this celebration as she receives a Bachelor’s Degree in English Studies.

The ceremony is on the 10th of July and it starts by 9am at the University Hall, very close to the Museum. Reception follows at the No Left-Overs Cafeteria by 11am.

Please send us a reply in good time. We look forward to having you. Thank you so much.


Yours sincerely,


Mr&Mrs Fred Arno






I bet you remember what I told you about Oral Composition. It simply means presenting a composition with your mouth before writing it down. I also told you that it helps you become a better writer. An additional ‘goodie’ about oral composition is that it helps you coordinate or put your thoughts together beautifully.

Today, we will be talking about an oral composition on family.


Hello everyone. My name is James Nwachukwu. I have what you could call a small family: my Dad, Mum, my elder brother and my baby sister. I love every one of them so dearly.

My dad is a pilot and works with Arik Airlines. The times I spend with my dad are full of fun but he doesn’t spend much time at home because of his job. My dad is fair in complexion, of average height and he is a little muscular.

My mum is very loving but tough. She is an accountant that used to work with a bank. “Your dad made me stay at home with you so you could be adequately taken care of”, that’s what Mum told us. Mum is a disciplinarian, she ensures we behave well. She would always say whenever she spanks us “I cannot quit my job to be with you at home and you wouldn’t turn out well.” She also encourages us to be the best.

My elder brother is in Junior High School, class 2. He loves to read and play football. He is going to be a Scientist in the future. My dad is excited about that. My baby sister is 4 years old. My Mum is still homeschooling her. She is a sweet little girl. She spends a lot of time with her puppy, Joyful, that’s what she named it.

Let me end with me. I love to paint and sketch. I enjoy spending time with anyone that loves the arts. I guess it’s obvious and that is the reason Chike is my best friend.

I am so grateful for my family because we love one another and look out for one another.

Thank you for listening.



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