Election and Voters Responsibilities


Welcome to JSS2 Third Term!

We are eager to have you join us in class!!

In today’s Civic Education class, We will be discussing the Concept of Election. We hope you enjoy the class!


Elections- goverment classnotesng

Concept of Election

An election can be defined as an act or process of voting for a candidate to represent the people of a country in the various arms of government. It could as well be defined as a formal process of selecting a person for public office. It also refers to the means by which the people in a country make political choices by voting for competing candidates or parties.

It is also a procedure that allows members of an organization or community to choose representatives who will hold a position of authority. The concept of election implies that the voters have alternatives and can choose among a number of proposals designed to settle an issue of public concerns.


Concept of a Voter

A voter is a person who is eligible to participate in voting. Voters are also referred to as the ‘electorates. Voting is a process of expressing one’s choice of a candidate in an election.


Types of Election

The types of election include:

  • Direct Election: This is the process by which voters vote directly to elect their representatives for public office.

Advantages of Direct Election

    1. It is Highly Democratic: It offers citizens the opportunity of choosing their leaders directly through an election.
    2. It makes voters have equal votes: It makes it possible for voters to have equal voting because the principle of one man one vote applies.
    3. It Promotes Democracy: Direct election helps in promoting the growth of democracy and political stability.
    4. It Encourages Accountability: Direct elections make elected leaders be accountable, responsible and responsive.
    5. It is Simple to Practise: Direct elections are simple to adopt in many societies.


  • Indirect Elections

This implies a system whereby eligible voters elect representatives who would make the final selection of leaders on their behalf. This involves the use of an Electoral College.


    1. It is very cheap.
    2. It reduces electoral malpractice.
    3. It reduces political violence.
    4. It enhances the quality of law made.

vote election civic education classnotesng

  • Electoral College

This is a body of elected representatives who assist in electing other political or public officers.

Advantages of Electoral College

      1. It reduces electoral malpractice.
      2. It is less expensive.
      3. It produces winners easily.
      4. It makes voting very short and easy.
  • By-Election: This refers to an election that is conducted to fill a vacant elective post due to recall or resignation or death of an individual holding given political office.
  • Run-Off election: This is an election that is re-conducted due to disqualification or malpractice or annulment of the initial polls or election. It is usually ordered by an election tribunal or court.
  • Referendum: This is a ‘yes’ or no’ vote of the people particularly on laws in a given political system. It helps the government in knowing the opinion of people about an important issue of national interest or concern.
  • Primary Election: This refers to an election conducted within the party to elect the flag-bearer of the party.
  • Plebiscites: It is also a yes or no people’s vote.


nigerians voting civic education classnotesng
Nigerians Voting



We have come to the end of this class. We do hope you enjoyed the class?

Should you have any further question, feel free to ask in the comment section below and trust us to respond as soon as possible.

In our next class, we will be talking about Qualification for Election and Responsibility of Voters. We are very much eager to meet you there.


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