The Nervous  System

Welcome to today’s class!!

We are thrilled to have you in our class!!

In today’s Physical and Health Education class, we will be learning about The Nervous System

Nervous System

the nervous system

The nervous system is a complex network of nerves and cells that carry messages to and from the brain and spinal cord to various parts of the body. The proper functioning of these nerves ensures that each organ system, such as the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and immune systems, can adequately communicate with one another.

The nervous system includes the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord, whereas the PNS is made up of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.

The Brain

On average, the brain weighs between 1.3 to 1.4 kg, with about 60% of the brain consisting of fat. The remaining 40% of the brain consists of protein, water, carbohydrates, and salts.

The brain can be divided into four distinct regions: the brainstem, cerebrum, cerebellum, and diencephalon. Taken together, these different areas of the brain control thought, memory, emotion, touch, motor skills, vision, breathing, hunger, temperature, and all other processes that occur within the body.

The brain consists of both gray and white matter. Gray matter, which is darker in color and surrounds white matter, consists of neuron somas, and round central cell bodies. Conversely, white matter, which is lighter in color and comprises the inner portion of the brain, is primarily made up of axons, the long stems that connect neurons.

The Brainstem

The brainstem, located in the middle of the brain, is the stalk-like part of the brain that connects the brain to the spinal cord and is only about one inch long. This region regulates essential functions such as blood pressure, breathing, heart rhythms, and swallowing.

The brainstem can be further subdivided into the midbrain, pons, and medulla.

The midbrain, otherwise known as the mesencephalon, is crucial for regulating eye movements, emotions, hearing, and long-term memory. 

The pons is the starting location for four of the 12 cranial nerves. Some of the different functions regulated by the pons include facial movements, hearing, breathing, and balance.

Ectomorph is characterized by a tall and slim body type, with narrow shoulders and a low muscle mass percentage.

In general, people with an ectomorph body type have a fast metabolism and tend to lose weight easily. However, they do have more difficulty building muscle. 

Therefore, ectomorphs are advised to increase their calorie and protein intake, and to consume foods that contain healthy fats. You should also incorporate vegetables, fruits and whole grains into your diets. All of these food sources will help with weight gain and muscle-building. Learn more about other common body types and how they differ from an ectomorph.

Body Type Characteristics As Related to the Nervous System

People with an ectomorph body type generally have the following physical characteristics:

  • Leaner body
  • Slightly taller than average
  • Less body fat percentage

In summary, people with an ectomorph body type usually have a faster metabolism, and therefore lose weight easily. However, they have more difficulty with putting on muscle. 



Explain what the Nervous System is. 


Reading Assignment

Identify what people with an ectomorph body type generally have as physical characteristics


Weekend Assignment

  • Explain the difference between the brain and brainstem


We hope you enjoyed today’s class. In our next class, we will be talking about Nervous System II.

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